From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ]…

Empire State Building car zap mystery
BY Richard Weir  /  January 27th 2008

In the shadow of the Empire State Building lies an “automotive Bermuda
Triangle” – a five-block radius where vehicles mysteriously die.

No one is sure what’s causing it, but all roads appear to lead to the
looming giant in our midst – specifically, its Art Deco mast and 203-
foot-long, antenna-laden spire.

“We get about 10 to 15 cars stuck near there every day,” said Isaac
Leviev, manager of Citywide Towing, the AAA’s exclusive roadside
assistance provider from 42nd St. to the Battery. “You pull the car
four or five blocks to the west or east and the car starts right up.”

Motorists like Russell Valeev, 25, learn about it the hard way.

“The lights work, the horn works, everything. But it won’t start,”
Valeev, a driver for Golden Touch Transportation said one recent
evening as he sat in his 2005 Ford van with the hood propped open on
E. 35th St., between Lexington and Park Aves. “It’s my job. No money.”

The 102-story building, at Fifth Ave. between 33rd and 34th Sts., has
been home to broadcast equipment since its opening in 1931, when RCA
installed an experimental TV antenna.

Since the 9/11 attacks destroyed the twin towers, the building has
regained its status as the leading transmission site for commercial
broadcast outfits, with 13 TV and 19 FM stations mounting antennas on
its spire.

The Empire State Building Co., which refused to provide the Daily News
a list of its antennas, denied it has created any “adverse impact” on

“If the claim were indeed true, the streets in the vicinity of the
building would be constantly littered with disabled vehicles,” the
building’s owner said.

According to many doormen in the area, they often are.

“They park here on the block and when they come back and try to leave,
they can’t start their cars,” said Martin Deda, a doorman at 16 Park
Ave., which fronts E. 35th St.

“I’ve seen a lot of cars get towed away,” said a doorman at 35 E. 35th
St. who gave only his first name, Joseph. “I see it all the time, at
least 10 times a week … I call it the ‘Empire State Building

Automotive experts and engineers believe the problem stems from radio
frequency interference that’s “jamming” the remote keyless entry
systems of cars.

The remote keyless entry systems operate on specific wavelengths
assigned by the Federal Communications Commission, which governs the
bands and bandwidths of TV, radio, telephone and other transmissions.

The FCC said it has not received any complaints regarding interference
affecting autos in midtown, and Empire State Building officials don’t
believe the claims.

Yet some phantom transmission appears to cause the remote keyless
entry systems of scores of car owners to go haywire and stop talking
to their vehicles.

Abe Quinones was a drug rep in September 2002 when he parked his
new BMW 325i on the south side of E. 35th St., just west of Park Ave.

“As I was leaving, I went to click the remote to lock the doors, but
it didn’t work. I just thought it was the [key’s] battery,” he said.
He locked the car the old-fashioned way, using the button on the door.
When he returned, he was locked out.

“I was stuck there for three hours. I had to call for a tow truck,” he
said, adding that the driver jimmied open his door. “The minute he
stuck the key in the ignition the car started up.”

Lain Gutierrez, 39, a retired investment banker who lives in Times
Square, nearly had to shell out $500 for a rental SUV when a friend’s
Jeep Liberty suddenly would not start while parked on E. 35th St.,
west of Lexington Ave., last month.

“It was a bizarre, automotive Bermuda Triangle experience,” Gutierrez

For nearly three hours, “The car was sitting there dead.”

A tow truck driver told them about the radio waves zapping the car’s
immobilizer chip. “We thought he was crazy,” Gutierrez said.

Then the car started right up.


Microwave Beam Stops Cars Dead
BY Tracy Staedter  /  Nov. 29, 2007

The same microwave radiation that reheats pizza can be used to fry the
electrical systems in cars, stopping them dead in their tracks.

Emitted from a rooftop device, the radiation could be used by law
enforcement officers to put an end to dangerous car chases or by
military personnel as a non-lethal way of disabling vehicles that get
too close for comfort.

“The idea is to warn an automobile some distance away from a high-
value target like a military barrack or a communication center. If
they don’t comply, you just zap them and it prevents them from coming
closer,” said James Tatoian, CEO of Eureka Aerospace in Pasadena,

Tatoian and his team have been working on the device since 2003. The
current prototype is about 5 feet long, 3 feet wide, a foot thick, and
weighs just under 200 pounds.

The technology uses the same kind of energy used in microwave ovens,
but at a different frequency. Ovens typically operate at 2.45 Ghz,
whereas the high-power car-stopping system is at 300 megahertz. In
both cases, the radiation is above common radio frequencies and is not
harmful to humans.

“There are no biological effects,” said Tatoian. “We comply with every
standard in the literature as far as biological impact.”

To disable cars, the device first generates energy that is amplified
using a generator. The energy is converted to microwave radiation and
then directed, by way of a specially designed antenna, at the offender
in a narrow beam.

The higher the frequency of the radiation, the more directed the beam,
which allows the user to aim the energy at vulnerable car parts, such
as light bulb filaments, lug nuts, frame bolts, or windshield antenna.

Having access to these locations is crucial because newer cars are
made with lots of plastic parts, have rustproof paint that prevents
electricity from conducting, and have computers already designed to
withstand the electromagnetic energy coming from the car engine.

One beam pulsed in a burst lasting just 50 nanoseconds is enough to
disrupt a vehicle’s electrical system. The radiation can overload
wires or damage or upset the car’s central microprocessor.

In tests on four vehicles, the researchers were able to disable cars
from 10 to 50 feet away.

Such a device could go a long way to save time and lives in places
like southern California, where highways stretch uninterrupted for
long distances and car chases are common.

“Once they get off the streets, they just go until they run out of
gas,” said commander Charles “Sid” Heal of the Los Angeles Sheriff’s
Department in Monterey Park, Calif. The department donated test cars
for the experiments.

A technology that would shut down a car’s computer could not only
reduce the number of car chases, but could also allow police officers
to intentionally stop a car in a location where the offender might
have difficulty running from on foot.

Heal said he would like to see the researchers add a light to beam, so
that law enforcers could see where they are directing the beam and
offenders would realize that they are on the receiving end of some
kind of weapon.

“We can put the visible light on them, and if we don’t get compliance,
we’ll hit them with a device that kills the car,” said Heal.

Tatoian thinks that with the proper funding, Eureka Aerospace can
shrink the device in less than two years to a 50-pound appliance that
looks like a plasma television and can disable cars from 600 feet

Technology Description

The high-power electromagnetic system (HPEMS) uses microwave energy to
disable/damage vehicle’s electronic control module/microprocessors
which control engine’s vital functions. The system is capable of (1)
high-value asset perimeter protection from approaching hostile
vehicles, (2) bringing cars to halt on urban, suburban roads and multi-
lane highways, (3) perimeter protection for gas-oil (fueling) platform
at sea and (4) day/night, all weather clandestine operations. Figures
shown here depict HPEMS’ application for stopping vehicles on highways
and perimeter protection of gas-oil fueling platform from approaching
boats at sea.

The focus originally is to build a compact portable tunable system to
be integrated in a police car (Ford Crown Victoria) and having the
following operational capabilities:

* Operational range of frequencies tunable in the 350-1350 MHz range
* Immobilizing all vehicles with microprocessors at the range
exceeding 50 meters
* HPEMS fits on a roof of a vehicle

Once the car-hosted system is built and tested, Eureka Aerospace will
transition the technology to building larger HPEMS for 5-km perimeter
protection applications.

HPEMS consists of 3 major elements:

1. Power Source
2. Tunable RF Oscillator
3. High-gain antenna

The power source consists of 16-stage Marx generator having erected
voltage in excess of 640 kV, generating high energy (103 J each)
pulses at PRF=100 Hz, yielding 10 kW average power. Marx generator is
being fed by 270 Vdc capacitor bank, which in turn is energized by a
12V, 2kJ/sec car alternator. The design goal is to achieve PRF=1000
Hz, thus increasing the average power by 10 dB.

Tunable RF Oscillator consists of a two-plate variable length
transmission line and a fast (less than 100 ps) closing spark-gap
switch, which traps the pulses between the switch and the antenna
(load) and thus converts Marx’s dc energy into microwave energy at a
frequency controlled by the length of the transmission line.

High-gain antenna constitutes an integral part of the oscillator,
since it represents the load of the oscillator circuit. Its terminals
are connected to the transmission line and it radiates due to the
oscillating voltage on its terminals. In the development of antenna
subsystem, the key elements are: (1) suitable impedance allowing for
efficient radiation and yet permitting adequate oscillations to occur
between the switch and antenna for having large Q, (2) antenna size
and shape for achieving required gain and yet not be obtrusive. The
candidate antennas include (a) horn, (b) spiral and (c) Impulse
radiating antenna (IRA), with gain ranging from 16 dBi (at 350 MHz) to
28 dBi (at 1.35 GHz). The operational system will have multiple (HH
and VV) or circular polarization.

Tunable oscillator together with a high-power switch constitutes an
integral part of the entire HPEMS. The subsystem will be tunable in
the 350-1350 MHz range, where the most vulnerable frequencies for
vehicles were determined during Phase II effort. The choice of a
dielectric medium inside the switch, which will be based on the
magnitude of the maximum voltage on its electrodes, the size of the
gap between electrodes together with antenna impedance, will be
selected to achieve the most efficient power transfer from Marx
generator to the radiating antenna. Moreover, to accommodate large
voltages, the option of using multi-channel switch oscillator system
is being investigated. The overall objective of the HPEMS is to
deliver at least 20 kV/m at the target vehicle of up to 50 m.

Finally, to avoid collateral damage to other vehicles, particularly on
multi-lane highways, HPEMS is designed to optimize the antenna beam
size, given operational frequency and the limitations of the antenna
aperture size, which, together with system operational procedures
(distance to the target vehicle and aspect angle) will assure the
“illumination” of the target vehicle only. The tables below cite 1)
HPEMS features, advantages, and benefits and 2) HPEMS comparison with
other key competing technologies.

All current vehicle stopping systems, although affordable but highly
ineffective, can be replaced by Eureka’s HPEMS. No interfacing
equipment or facilities are needed for implementation of HPEMS

Current State of Development

In April 2004, Eureka Aerospace conducted a series of tests at the Los
Angeles Sheriff Department’s (LASD) Fleet maintenance facility, where
the so-called vulnerable frequencies associated with the
microprocessor pins controlling the most vital function of the
Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) were measured for six vehicles
including Chevy Lumina, Dodge truck, Ford Taurus, Ford Crown Victoria,
Toyota 4Runner and Nissan Maxima. This, in turn, will allow for the
optimum design of the HPEMS. Figure on the right presents a sample of
the measurement results – frequency response of the Dodge Dakota’s
ignition switch for both H and V-polarizations. Note the resonances at
760 and 1,250 MHz, which indicate that these are the “vulnerable”
frequencies for this vehicle – clearly an optimal choice of HPEMS’
operational frequencies in this particular case.

The determination of vehicle’s “vulnerable” frequencies plays a key
role in the developing of an optimal high-power microwave system,
resulting in the reduction of the system requirements on the radiated
power, system size and weight.

Earlier, Eureka Aerospace developed system concepts for both 5-km
perimeter protection and vehicle immobilization on highways, where
detailed analysis of the HPEMS and design curves for power and
aperture requirements were carried out.

Currently, a prototype HPEMS to be hosted by a Ford Crown Victoria is
being fabricated at Eureka’s microwave laboratory with anticipated
completion by October 2005, and subsequent full-scale tests in
November 2005 at Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department’s (LASD) range
facility. The Current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) is 6.
The next step would be the development of a larger HPEMS system for
MARCORSYSCOM and OPNAV(Navy) to be deployed on top of the building and
oil-gas fueling platform, respectively, for a 5-km perimeter
protection purpose.


From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ]

More cable outages in the middle east
BY Johannes Ullrich  /  2008-02-01

“According to news reports, a third undersea cable to the middle east
got cut. The third cable cut today was less important then the other
two, but it was one of the systems used as a “backup” during the last
few days. On Wednesday, two cables off the coast of Egypt got cut.
Today, one more off the coast of Dubai was cut. Of course, three cuts
in such a short time may look suspect. But don’t forget that you have
“cascade failures” where backup systems go down due to overload once
the primary system goes down. The cable that went down today wasn’t
used much in part as it was known as less reliable. These cable cuts
are in particular challenging as repair times are long (weeks) and
there is little extra capacity. Other technologies like Satellites do
not provide the same capabilities as cables. Connectivity to and from
the Middle East as well as India is severely affected. Availability
and disaster recovery planning is a frequently neglected security
function. Newcomers to the security field are frequently attracted by
“cool exploits”. But the true professional usually knows that boring
and tedious tasks like disaster recovery planning will frequently save
the business in the end.”

New cable cut compounds net woes

A submarine cable in the Middle East has been snapped, adding to
global net problems caused by breaks in two lines under the
Mediterranean on Wednesday. The Falcon cable, owned by a firm that
operates one of the previously damaged cables, was snapped on Friday
morning. The cause of the latest break has not been confirmed but a
repair ship has been deployed, said owner Flag Telecom.

Following the earlier break internet services were severely disrupted
in Egypt, the Middle East and India. “The situation is critical for us
in terms of congestion,” Omar Sultan, chief executive of Dubai’s ISP
DU, told The Associated Press, following the most recent break.

Wednesday’s incident caused disruption to 70% of the nationwide
internet network in Egypt on Wednesday, while India suffered up to 60%
disruption. Flag Telecom said a repair ship was expected to arrive at
the site of the first break – 8.3km from Alexandria in Egypt – on 5
February, with repair work expected to take a week. A repair ship
deployed to the second break – 56km from Dubai – was expected to
arrive at the site in the “next few days”, the firm said.

Web returns

The first cable – the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) – was
cut at 0800 on 30 January, the firm said. A second cable thought to
lie alongside it – SEA-ME-WE 4, or the South East Asia-Middle East-
West Europe 4 cable – was also split. FLAG is a 28,000km (17,400 mile)
long submarine communications cable that links Australia and Japan
with Europe via India and the Middle East. SEA-ME-WE 4 is a submarine
cable linking South East Asia to Europe via the Indian subcontinent
and the Middle East.

The two cable cuts meant that the only cable in service connecting
Europe to the Middle East via Egypt was the older Sea-M-We 3 system,
according to research firm TeleGeography. The firm said the cuts
reduced the amount of available capacity on the stretch of network
between India and Europe by 75% percent. As a result, carriers in
Egypt and the Middle East re-routed their European traffic around the
globe, through South East Asia and across the Pacific and Atlantic
oceans. The cause of the break has still not been confirmed. The third
break is unlikely to disrupt commerce in the region as many business
are closed on Fridays. Initial reports suggested that it could have
been snapped by a ship’s anchor.

Internet service providers said they expected India’s to be back to
about 80% of its usual speed by the end of Friday. In Egypt Minister
of Communications and Information Technology Tarek Kamil said he
expected to be at the same capacity within two days. “However, it’s
not before ten days until the internet service returns to its normal
performance,” Kamil told the state Al-Ahram newspaper.

Mediterranean Cables Cut, Disrupting Communications
BY Camilla Hall  /  Jan. 30 2008

Internet and telephone communications across the Middle East and India
were disrupted after two submarine cable systems in the Mediterranean
Sea were cut.

Six ships were diverted from Alexandria port and one may have severed
the cables with an anchor, said a spokesman for Flag Telecom Group
Ltd., which operates one of the cables. The incident took place 8.3
kilometers (5.2 miles) from Alexandria beach in northern Egypt, the
spokesman, who asked not to be named, said in an interview from
Mumbai, India. India and countries across the Middle East experienced
slow Internet connections and problems making international calls to
the U.S. and Europe, the spokesman said. The break will take 12 to 15
days to fix, he said.

“It’s a national disaster,” said Joseph Metry, network supervisor at
Orascom Telecom Holding SAE, the biggest mobile- phone company in the
Middle East and North Africa. The problem is affecting all Egyptian
Internet users, Metry said in a phone interview from Cairo. The ships
were diverted because of bad weather yesterday, he said. Yesterday’s
bad weather conditions were felt in bordering Israel today, where
public transportation, schools and most businesses in Jerusalem shut
down, leaving the streets empty of traffic as the city braced for as
much as 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow.

Rerouting Traffic

Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Co., the United Arab Emirates’
second-biggest mobile-phone company, is working with the cable
operators, Flag Telecom and SEA-ME-WE 4, to find out why the cables
were cut and to determine when service can be restored, the company,
known as du, said in an e-mailed release. “In the meantime, du has
already started transferring Internet and international voice traffic
through other cable systems that have not been affected, although some
congestion may be expected at peak times until this issue is
resolved,” the company said in the statement.

Customers of AT&T Inc., the biggest U.S. phone company, have been
affected, spokesman Michael Coe said. While the company is rerouting
its clients’ traffic, it anticipates congestion since other carriers
are doing the same thing, he said. He didn’t know how many customers
were affected. San Antonio-based AT&T is part of the group that owns
the cable, Coe said. AT&T had $4.7 billion in corporate sales last
quarter, or 27 percent of total revenue.

Repair Costs

Verizon Communications Inc., the second-biggest U.S. phone company,
said some customers have been affected by the cable break. The New
York-based company is switching those clients to other network routes,
said Verizon spokeswoman Linda Laughlin. Verizon also co-owns the
cable as part of a group with several other carriers, and the
companies pay regular maintenance fees that will cover the cost to
repair the cable, Laughlin said. She said she didn’t know how many
clients were affected.

“We’ll try to move customers over as soon as we can,” she said.
While it’s rare for undersea fiber cables to break, they can come
apart when geographic faults move, Laughlin said. Verizon’s corporate
sales unit, which provides phone and Internet service to multinational
corporations, had sales of $5.4 billion last quarter, or about 23
percent of overall revenue.

`Degraded Speed’

Bahrain Telecommunications Co., which holds the franchise to provide
all of Bahrain’s public telecommunications, said in an e- mailed
statement that “Internet services will still be available but at a
degraded speed during peak hours.” Batelco, as the company is known,
advised customers to give more priority to applications such as
browsing and e-mail, which consume less bandwidth than actions such as
file sharing.

“The interruption in the service is beyond Batelco’s control but
repair work is already under way by the providers and it is
anticipated that full services will be resumed soon,” Batelco
Corporate Affairs General Manager Ahmed Al Janahi said in the

Egypt’s Ministry of Telecommunications “has formed an emergency team
to bring back the service quickly through several alternative paths
such as the Suez Canal and satellite links,” according to a statement
broadcast on Egyptian television. The cables are not easily broken so
there must have been a “huge hit,” Orascom’s Metry said.

From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ]

Spooks vs. Psychics: Who Predicted 9/11 Better?
By Sharon Weinberger  /  August 22, 2007

“Yesterday, we learned about the newly released CIA inspector general
report slamming the spook agency for not foreseeing the Al Qaeda
threat and 9/11.  Now, Gary Bekkum at Starstream Research questions
whether the CIA actually had the information it needed to foresee
9/11, and just didn’t realize it. How’s that? Well, the intel
community’s psychics may have predicted it back in 1986. Who knew?

Gary has been vigorously pursuing the spy-psychic connection for a
while–(known formally as Remote Viewing)–and has spent a lot of time
sifting through declassified documents relating to the intelligence
program; he recently put up some of the declassified raw reports that
he says may indicate foreknowledge of 9/11. I’ve pasted some excerpts

It’s a basic question, if you think about it: who was better able to
predict the devastation of 9/11? Was it the top analysts in the
intelligence community, who had at their fingertips (or should’ve had)
some of the best intelligence collected by technical means and human
sources, or psychics (who, incidentally, were also in the employ of
the intelligence community at the time)?”


We have compiled images from a CIA-released STAR GATE document of
remote viewer aka psychic-spy sources tasked to warn of a major
terrorist incident in New York City. At the time the once SECRET
sessions were recorded, the implicit target was assumed to be the
Liberty Celebration.

Our interpretation is that the viewers attention was drawn some
fifteen years into the future, to the events of September 11th, 2001,
and as a result they reported images from both New York City and
Washington, D.C. The psychic spy remote viewers were given envelopes
describing the target (terrorist attack) and instructed not to open
the envelopes. The instructions — what we consider to be the input to
the ‘black box’ mechanics of remote viewing — included keywords like
“hostile terrorist activities” and “reported.” Furthermore, they are
instructed “so that we may have the opportunity to thwart any hostile
terrorist activities” and are given a general location, near the
Statue of Liberty. It is also important to understand that this input
request was hidden within the envelopes and was not to be read by the
viewers: “They were instructed not to open their envelopes nor share
data with each other.”

The report from psychic spy remote viewer SOURCE 21 from June 20, 1986
and June 23, 1986.

On the first session of June 20th, 1986,  Source 21 appears to have
made contact with key aspects of the 9/11 attacks. The viewer’s
attention is drawn towards America from the east, suggesting the
origin of the terrorists homelands. The arrival of the terrorists
brings “burning and loud noises.”

It then appears that we are thrust into the future, following the
failure of Flight 93 to crash into the U.S. Capitol Building.

“President George W. Bush will lead the worldwide initiative with the
playing of the national anthem on December 11 at a White House event
at 8:46 a.m. (EST). This event will be web cast live on the White
House web site.”

I have struck out in red “analytical overlay” which is erroneous data
injected by a viewer interpreting raw psychic intelligence within the
context of their personal understanding of the images, as opposed to
the actual target.

“We are privileged to have with us today the families of many of the
heroes on September the 11th, including the family of Jeremy Glick of
Flight 93. His courage and self-sacrifice may have saved the White
House. It is right and fitting that it is here we pay our respects.”

The second session then takes Source 21 back to the intended target
site of a terrorist attack against NYC.

The site is described as “massive grey smooth” and “stepped.”

At this point Source 21 locks into the target event: “Newspaper
headlines have something to do with a collapse of a building — a lot
of people hurt or injured … perhaps something to do with an
aircraft … there is a perception of a large object falling —
heading toward the building … I sense the object may cause
structural damage as it crashes through the building. All of this
takes place sometime in the future.”

CIA FILES and 9/11

Remote Viewers Predicted 9/11 Style Attack Against Washington
Did Military Remote Viewers identify a 9/11 pilot?

(PRWEB) August 21, 2005

911 hijacker Ziad Jarrah may have been identified in the 1980’S by
military remote viewers.

A CIA Star Gate document, based upon input from four military sources,
reveals that a pilot with a name similar to “Jerry, Gerard, or
Geraldo” will “…fly to Washington D.C. with the mission of crashing
into the US Capitol Building.”

The date of the document appears to be prior to the 12th of December,

There are two copies of the same document in the CIA Star Gate
collection. The Star Gate collection covers more than twenty years of
government sponsored research into anomalous mental phenomena (AMP)
used by the military for intelligence collection. Remote viewing
involves using human sources as psychic spies to acquire intelligence
using their minds.

The two documents of interest (they are nearly identical, except that
one is marked “confidential”) appear to be from December of 1983. Paul
H. Smith’s “Reading the Enemy’s Mind” tells of special INSCOM remote
viewing sessions, held during a RAPT training program at the Monroe
Institute in early December, 1983. These sessions were future oriented
and tasked the viewers to locate future terrorist attacks in the
Washington, D.C. area. [1]

The CIA documents are of interest primarily for two reasons:

There is the prediction of an event:

An aircraft will “…fly to Washington, D.C. with the mission of
crashing into the US Capitol building…”

There is possible identification of the pilot:

The pilot, “…not in the country as of 12 Dec 83, foreign, perhaps
Iranian, speaks English and perhaps French… Name may be or sound
like Jerry, Gerard, or Geraldo…”

The remaining information, as presented in this document, appears at
first glance to be seriously wrong. Starstream has discovered that
removal of contextual overlay reveals interesting correlations to 911
events, including the identification of New York and New Jersey.

The art of remote viewing is far from being an exact science. There is
a signal to noise ratio involved, and errors are to be expected. There
is the extraordinary distance in spacetime from 1983 to 2001. More
importantly, the original data presented by the “four different
sources” is not available. What is presented in the available document
appears to be an analytical summary and interpretation of raw data
provided by the viewers. The methodology used by the viewers is not

Keywords and concepts from the original document can be mapped to the
assumed target event of the failed attack against Washington on
9-11-2001. The terrorist pilot of United Flight 93 was Ziad Jarrah
(also sometimes spelled Jarrahi), a name that might be considered to
“…sound like Jerry Gerard, or Geraldo.” Jarrah, a foreigner from
Lebanon, was not Iranian, however at least one passenger identified
the terrorists on Flight 93 as possibly Iranian. Jarrah was of Middle
Eastern origin and spoke both English and French.

It should be noted that according to the document “This information
was produced unofficially and is unconfirmed.” This suggests that
Monroe Institute sessions may have been involved.

[1] Paul H. Smith’s “Reading the Enemy’s Mind”:

Smith writes that he was among the second group of INSCOM people to
get RAPT’ed sometime around Dec. 2, 1983. See page 143.

Thursday Dec. 8th, 1983 Future 15

Smith writes:

“…we were to try to perceive events occurring over the next two

INSCOM RAPT Gateway Experience Precognition Session, ~ Dec 9th, 1983

Page 150-151 tells the story of a special future oriented remote
viewing group session at the Monroe Institute.

Smith mentions being tasked against a specific target:

“Will there be a terrorist attack against government facilities in the
Washington, D.C. area in next few months?”

“Where will the next terrorist attack take place?”

“When will the next attack take place?”

Papers with the impressions were handed in, and according to Smith
“…we never heard about it to my recollection.”



We assume for this particular exercise that remote viewing of distant
targets, as practiced by the CIA and military intelligence agencies,
is a real and viable method of intelligence collection.

Thu, Aug 25, 2005 at 7:10 PM




Following 9/11, an internal CIA report concluded that there had been
“No examination of the potential for terrorists to use aircraft as
weapons, as distinguished from traditional hijackings.”


There are two copies of the same document found in the CIA STAR GATE
Collection. This collection consists of recently released declassified
material covering more than twenty years of government sponsored
anomalous mental phenomena (AMP) used for information collection (RV –
Remote Viewing) and material perturbation (RP – Remote Perturbation).
The document appears to be from 1983, as there is a notation that the
target subject (pilot) is “not in the country as of 12 Dec 83.”

This document is of interest primary for two reasons:

The prediction of an EVENT:

An “aircraft”, will “…fly to Washington, D.C. with the mission of
crashing into the US Capitol building…”

The possible identification of the PILOT:

The pilot, “…not in the country as of 12 Dec 83, foreign, perhaps
Iranian, speaks English and perhaps French…name may be or sound like
Jerry, Gerard, or Geraldo…”

The remaining information, as presented in this document, appears at
first glance to be seriously wrong. Interesting correlations appear
upon closer examination.

The art of remote viewing is far from being an exact science. There is
a signal to noise ratio involved, and errors are to be expected. There
is the extraordinary distance in spacetime from 1983 to 2001. More
importantly for this report, the original data presented by the “four
different sources” is not available. What appears in the document is
an informal analytical summary and interpretation of the raw data
provided by the viewers. The methodology used by the viewers is not
known. It is noted within the document that “this information was
produced unofficially and is unconfirmed.”

The Account by Paul Smith

The account by Paul Smith, telling of his involvement in special
INSCOM/Monroe Institute RAPT sessions held during late 1983, fits the
apparent time frame of the creation of the document.

Smith writes that he was among the second group of INSCOM people to
“get RAPT’ed” sometime around Dec. 2, 1983. [1]

About the Thursday Dec. 8th, 1983 Future 15 sessions Smith writes:

“…we were to try to perceive events occurring over the next two

INSCOM RAPT Gateway Experience Precognition Session, ~ Dec 9th, 1983

Page 150-151 of Paul Smith’s book, “Reading the Enemy’s Mind,” tells
the story of a special future oriented remote viewing group session at
the Monroe Institute.

Smith mentions being tasked against a specific target:

“Will there be a terrorist attack against government facilities in the
Washington, D.C. area in next few months?”

“Where will the next terrorist attack take place?”

“When will the next attack take place?”

Papers with the impressions were handed in, and according to Smith,
“…we never heard about it to my recollection.”


In this extended preliminary report, STARSTREAM has dissected the
original document using “conceptual remote viewing” methodology. This
allows for reexamination of the data as presented in the original
document. Key basic concepts can be mapped to a presumed target event:
the failed attack against Washington, D.C. during the terrorist events
of 9-11-2001. In this context, United Flight 93 appears to be the
primary origin of the 1983 report. It is generally accepted that the
hijackers aboard Flight 93 intended to fly the plane into the U.S.
Capitol Building. The terrorist piloting Flight 93 was Ziad Jarrah
(Jarrah is also sometimes spelled Jarrahi). Jarrah is a name that
might be considered to “sound like Jerry, Gerard, or Geraldo.” We note
that none of the names of other terrorists involved in the attack
against Washington, D.C. bear any resemblance to Jerry, Gerard, or

Jarrah, a foreigner from Lebanon, was not Iranian but was of middle
eastern origin. Jarrah spoke both English and French.

Examining the Data

We begin with the assumption that remote viewed data represents a very
noisy signal, buried in a set of non-local interactions separated from
each other in ordinary spacetime by the limit of the speed of light.
The basic black box with an input and an output forms the basis of our
model. Since there are no accepted theories of a non-local signal
(that is a signal that propagates faster than light, and is therefore
outside of causality) we restrict the actual phenomenology to a black
box, which accepts an input and produces an output. The internal
workings of the black box are not important for our purposes.

For the black box the choice of any input signal will affect the
output signal.

The primary problem we wish to avoid for our black box is CONCEPTUAL
OVERLAY. Conceptual overlay results from the improper choice of an
input signal into the black box. An input signal which results in an
output that is strongly over-correlated to the input signal is
considered to have been colored by conceptual overlay. The resulting
output signal is generally localized and produces little or no
information about the distant non-local target. Ideally we wish to
maximize the output signal for non-local information, which can later
be correlated to actual events.

Our method relies on mapping and selection rather than pre-biased
interpretations of the raw signal output of the black box. It is
expected that the output is a noisy mixture of local and non-local
signals. To optimize the correlations we focus on the primitive
content rather than on the original analysis and conceptual overlay
for our interpretation.

Note that the primary distinguishing characteristic of this method is
that we do not directly ask questions of the black box. Instead we
allow the non-local signal to query our local reality. We observe any
conceptual correlations to actual events.

Interpretive mapping of the output data

Given an existing set of data from a black box output measurement, we
proceed by reducing the data to primitive conceptual elements. Ideas
are the primary resource in this method, other sensory impressions are
generally not discussed.

Applying CON-RV to the CIA STAR GATE documents


The session(s) which produced the data in this document appears to
have been heavily front loaded with information. This is made more
explicit given the likelihood that the RAPT sessions described by Paul
Smith are the source of the information.

We assume that the following keys were inserted into the input of the
black box:

“terrorist attack”

“government facilities”

“Washington, D.C. area”

“will, when, where” and “next few months”

Given the above, we strongly expect that these items will appear in
some form in the output of the black box.

We also expect some kind of mixture of the above local elements with a
non-local source, given that altered states of consciousness were
likely induced by the methodology at the Monroe Institute. This should
result in a mixed output of noise, and local and non-local signal.



“SOURCES: The sources for this information are Army personnel who have
provided accurate information in the past. This information was
produced unofficially and is unconfirmed. Four different sources
provided information which contained the same basic elements. The
following information are those elements which were generally

We conclude that the origin of the data is likely from INSCOM sessions
held at the Monroe Institute in early December, 1983, based upon the
account by Paul Smith, and the fact that the document states that the
sources were Army personnel, that they provided accurate information
in the past, and that the information was produced unofficially and is

The methodology was likely unconventional as explained by Paul Smith
in his book.


“EVENT: Sources state that a small “Lear Jet type aircraft” loaded
with explosives (not further identified) will depart from a northern
mid-west area, perhaps Chicago or near Chicago, and fly to Washington,
D C with the mission of crashing into the US Capitol building. One
source states that he feels there is a flight plan on file at National

The description of the event is heavily front loaded, as noted

The target “Washington, D.C.” was likely front loaded as an input to
the black box, as was “terrorist” and “attack”, etc.

Here are the primitive elements:

Small aircraft, Learjet, jet-type, aircraft, loaded, explosives,
depart, northern,Midwest, Chicago, mission, crashing, U.S. Capitol
Building, flight plan, National Airport

Mapping to the 9/11 events:


The 9/11 pilots flew test flights using small aircraft, including a
fly over of the Washington, D.C. area. According to the 911 report
Karl Rove first informed President Bush that a small, twin-engine
plane had crashed into the World Trade Center. National Security
Advisor Condoleezza Rice told Bush that it was a twin-engine aircraft,
and a commercial aircraft.


NO direct match. We first concluded that this was analytical overlay,
perhaps from the original identification as told to President Bush, of
a small twin-engine commercial jet plane crashing into the World Trade
Center. Later we discovered that a nearly identical description
appears in the 9/11 Commission Report, pages 457-458:

“A 1998 White House tabletop exercise chaired by Richard Clarke
included a scenario in which a terrorist group loaded a Learjet with
explosives and took off for a suicide mission to Washington. Military
officials said they could scramble fighter jets from Langley Air Force
Base to chase the aircraft, but they would need “executive” orders to
shoot it down.”

We wonder if this exercise was influenced or inspired by the 1983 CIA
document. This also demonstrates that there is always the danger of
picking up related but “off target” information during any remote
viewing session.


All 9/11 planes were 757 or 767 commercial jet aircraft


The 9/11 plot involved the use of aircraft as weapons of mass


The 9/11 pilots were concerned that the planes be loaded with the
maximum amount of jet fuel


The jet fuel loaded into the planes was the explosive which turned the
planes into WMD; the terrorists threatened to use an explosive bomb on
Flight 93


The 9/11 aircraft involved in the Washington, D.C. area attacks
departed from Newark, New Jersey, and Washington, D.C.


The region of concern was NORAD’s northeastern watch; generally
“northern” is a partial hit, as opposed to say “southern”, etc.


The Midwest is mentioned in connection with Chicago and the Great
Lakes area. Front loading by the question “where is the plane NOW”
likely skewed this result. Further details, in particular the history
of the aircraft, are required to check this out.


Again there are indications that Chicago may have some relationship to
the aircraft in the period near to 1983.

NOTE ADDED 10-20-2005:

9/11 and Chicago

One of the items that bothered me about the CIA document that likely
resulted from the 1983 Monroe Institute INSCOM future remote viewing
sessions, was the reference to Chicago.

Today I discovered a reference connecting Chicago with crashing into a
building, from the official 9/11 report:

“At 9:00, Lee Hanson received a second call from his son Peter:

It’s getting bad, Dad-A stewardess was stabbed-They seem to have
knives and Mace-They said they have a bomb-It’s getting very bad on
the plane-Passengers are throwing up and getting sick-The plane is
making jerky movements-I don’t think the pilot is flying the plane-I
think we are going down-I think they intend to go to Chicago or
someplace and fly into a building-Don’t worry, Dad- If it happens,
it’ll be very fast-My God, my God.

The call ended abruptly. Lee Hanson had heard a woman scream just
before it cut off. He turned on a television, and in her home so did
Louise Sweeney. Both then saw the second aircraft hit the World Trade

At 9:03:11, United Airlines Flight 175 struck the South Tower of the
World Trade Center.51 All on board, along with an unknown number of
people in the tower, were killed instantly.”


The 9/11 mission was to inflict as much damage as possible using
aircraft as WMD. Specifically in the Washington, D.C. area the targets
were the Pentagon, the Capitol Building, and the White House. The
White House was considered to be a more difficult target.


Although all of the 911 aircraft crashed, Flight 93 failed to reach
the intended target in Washington, D.C. and crashed into a field in

“U.S. Capitol Building”

The U.S. Capitol building is the assumed intended target of Flight 93

“flight plan”

A general point, that the planes had properly registered flight plans,
and were not rogue invaders

“National Airport”

Although this is likely overlay due to front loading, it should be
noted that National Airport is in the Washington, D.C area.
Identification of National Airport was provided by only one of the
four sources.


“DATE OF EVENT: The month of December, January or February. The most
probable day is the 6, 16 or 26th of each month.”

Mapping to 9/11 Events:

Note: The timeline was likely seriously skewed by front loading, given
the account of Paul Smith. Several interesting correlations can be
made, however.

[Comment added 8-25-2007: Inversion of images is commonly reported by
remote viewers. It is possible that a 6 can be viewed as a 9, and vice
versa. The original tasking instructions, given in Dec. of 1983,
targeted the “next few months” according to Paul Smith.]

“December, January, or February”

The holiday season of 2001 is discussed in detail in the 9/11 Report,
as Jarrah, Atta, and Shehhi all took foreign trips during this time
period. This suggests that the dates given in the CIA document may
have been focused on the departure and arrival of the terrorists.

“January” 2001

January 2001 was a pivotal month for many of the 9/11 pilots. January
appears 118 times in the 9/11 Commission Report, February appears 79
times, and December appears 100 times. For a quick comparison, March
appears 94 times, April 79 times, June 410 times, July 431 times,
August 168 times, and September, the month of the actual attacks, 376
times. We therefore attach no significance to the dates given by the
remote viewers, apart from the above.

The identified dates may have some significance for Jarrah, in January
of 2001, perhaps related to his completion of Flight School and a trip
to visit his father at the end of January. We have found no other
possible significance and conclude that the dates given are not
related to the 9/11 attack on Washington, D.C.

6th: May have possible significance, not directly related to the date
of the attack

16th: May have possible significance, not directly related to the date
of the attack

26th: May have possible significance, not directly related to the date
of the attack

[Note added on 8-25-2007: We suggest that the three number sixes
reported above may have been nines. If that were true then the 9, 91,
and 92 might be related to the date of 9/11/2001.]


“AIRCRAFT: small “Lear Jet type” aircraft

blue and red in color, red predominating

Tail number may include the following characters:

A, N, Y, and the numbers 1 thru 7

most probably N, 2 and 7

Current location is believed to be along the Great

Lakes, perhaps Chicago.

Aircraft may have been purchased within the last 60

days in New Jersey or New York.”

We suspect that there would have been confusion between the entire
9/11 event, where four planes were used as weapons, and the front
loading that specified the Washington, D.C. area. There is a more
serious problem with the time frame, as the request for a current
location in 1983 would conflict with the actual event timeframe of
September 2001. There are several errors resulting from temporal front
loading of the remote viewers.

Apart from dates and timelines, numbers and letters are generally
considered to be among the most difficult targets.

Here are the primitive elements:

Small, Lear Jet type, blue and red (red predominating), tail number,
A, N, Y, the numbers 1 through 7, N, 2, and 7, current location, Great
Lakes, Chicago, aircraft, purchased, last 60 days, New Jersey, New

Mapping to 9/11 Events:


Original report of a plane crashing into the World Trade Center
described the aircraft as a small, twin-engine plane.

“Lear Jet type”

Likely analytical overlay, perhaps confusion given the report of a
small twin-engine commercial jet and the actual 767 and 757’s used in
the attack.

There is also this item mentioned in the 9/11 Commission Report:

“A 1998 White House tabletop exercise chaired by Richard Clarke
included a scenario in which a terrorist group loaded a Learjet with
explosives and took off for a suicide mission to Washington. Military
officials said they could scramble fighter jets from Langley Air Force
Base to chase the aircraft, but they would need “executive” orders to
shoot it down.”

“blue and red”

Blue and red are the predominant colors used in the detailing of both
the American Airlines and the United Airlines planes.

“red predominating”

This also appears as analytical overlay, although red might be
considered to stand out more than the blue against the silver metallic
plane bodies.

“Tail number,” “A, N, Y and “the numbers 1 through 7,” “N, 2, and 7”

Identification of the actual tail number would have been the target.
It does appear that there is a partial hit as the letter N is
identified as one of the three most likely letters. This is exactly
correct for all four planes.

The actual tail numbers were:


Note that the 3 digital tail numbers all fall between 1 – 7 with the
exception of a single 9 in N591UA, the 757 flown by Jarrah. We assume
that the inclusion of the number 7 is related to the Boeing 757 or 767

We also note that the tail of the American Airlines planes features
the distinctive “double A” logo and bird graphic, which resembles the
letter Y.

This appears to be a possible hit in most respects except for the
number 9 in N591UA.

“current location”

This is immediately problematic given that there is temporal overlay.

“Great Lakes”

No apparent mapping. Flight 93 turned back towards Washington, D.C
shortly before reaching the Great Lakes area.


No apparent mapping.

NOTE ADDED 10-20-2005:

9/11 and Chicago

One of the items that bothered me about the CIA document that likely
resulted from the 1983 Monroe Institute INSCOM future remote viewing
sessions, was the reference to Chicago.

Today I discovered a reference connecting Chicago with crashing into a
building, from the official 9/11 report:

“At 9:00, Lee Hanson received a second call from his son Peter:

It’s getting bad, Dad-A stewardess was stabbed-They seem to have
knives and Mace-They said they have a bomb-It’s getting very bad on
the plane-Passengers are throwing up and getting sick-The plane is
making jerky movements-I don’t think the pilot is flying the plane-I
think we are going down-I think they intend to go to Chicago or
someplace and fly into a building-Don’t worry, Dad- If it happens,
it’ll be very fast-My God, my God.

The call ended abruptly. Lee Hanson had heard a woman scream just
before it cut off. He turned on a television, and in her home so did
Louise Sweeney. Both then saw the second aircraft hit the World Trade

At 9:03:11, United Airlines Flight 175 struck the South Tower of the
World Trade Center.51 All on board, along with an unknown number of
people in the tower, were killed instantly.”


The reference to the aircraft involved, as well as to the timeline,
suggests that the viewers were front loaded with questions such as
“Where or when was the aircraft purchased?” There is the suggestion
that the viewers were being tasked along a line of inquiry that skewed
the data.


The terrorists involved in the 9/11 plot did not purchase any
airplanes, however they did purchase airplane tickets. The locations
associated with the purchase are New York and New Jersey.

“last 60 days”

Once again there is a serious problem with temporal front loading.
Perhaps this is related to the identification of the Chicago and Great
Lakes region?

“New Jersey”

New Jersey plays a predominant role in the 9/11 events.

“New York”

New York plays a predominant role in the 9/11 events.


“PILOT: not in the country as of 12 Dec 83

foreign, perhaps Iranian

speaks English and perhaps French

May enter the country through Canada on a French passport.

Name may be or sound like Jerry, Gerard or Geraldo.”

The identification of the pilot is the most interesting piece of
information, apart from identification of the plot to use airplanes as
weapons against government buildings in Washington, D.C. Generally it
is our opinion that this information is mostly correct. The most
important data point is the identification of the name of the pilot
flying the mission against the U.S. Capitol Building.

We note that of all of the names of the 9/11 pilots, the only
potential match is Ziad Jarrah. We also note with great interest that
Jarrah is the pilot of Flight 93, and that the target was considered
to be either the White House or the U.S. Capitol Building in
Washington, D.C.

Here are the primitive elements:

Pilot, country, 12 Dec 83, foreign, perhaps Iranian, speaks English,
perhaps (speaks) French, enter country, Canada, French, passport,
name, Jerry, Gerard, Geraldo

Mapping to 9/11 events:


Four planes were used in the 9/11 attacks. The names of the pilots
were Mohammed Atta (Flight 11), Hani Hanjour (Flight 77), Ziad Samir
Jarrah (or Jarrahi)(Flight 93) and Marwan al Shehhi (Flight 175). Of
these four, only Jarrah “sounds like” Jerry, Gerard or Geraldo. It
should also be noted that none of the names of the other hijackers
“sounds like” Jerry, Gerard or Geraldo. Jarrah piloted Flight 93,
bound for Washington, D.C. The likely target was the U.S. Capitol
Building, as there had been some discussion that the White House would
be a difficult target.


This item is probably front loaded. It is likely that the viewers were
asked “Is the terrorist pilot in the United States?”

“12 DEC 83”

This appears to be the front loaded timeframe of the original sessions


Jarrah a citizen of Lebanon, also lived for a time in Germany

“perhaps Iranian”

This may be related to a quote by one of the passengers on Flight 93.
In the account by MSNBC at

“Jeremy Glick calls his wife, Lyz, in New York to say that three
“Iranian looking” men, one with a red box strapped to his waist, have
taken control of the plane and to call the authorities.”

“speaks English”

Jarrah spoke excellent English

“perhaps (speaks) French”

Some reports state that Jarrah spoke fluent French as well as English


The terrorists all entered the United States using passports, in other
words no one entered through illegal channels, although fraudulent
information was used in some cases


Jarrah was the pilot identified with Flight 93, on a mission to crash
into the United States Capitol Building. Jarrah may be interpreted to
sound like Jerry (as in Jarrahi) Gerard (Jah – rard) or Geraldo.

[1] “Reading the Enemy’s Mind” by Paul Smith, page 143.

From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ]


Public release date: 14-Aug-2007

Contact: Charlie Wallace
charlie [dot] wallace [at] iop [dot] org

Physicists discover inorganic dust with lifelike qualities

Could extraterrestrial life be made of corkscrew-shaped particles of
interstellar dust? Intriguing new evidence of life-like structures
that form from inorganic substances in space are revealed today in the
New Journal of Physics. The findings hint at the possibility that life
beyond earth may not necessarily use carbon-based molecules as its
building blocks. They also point to a possible new explanation for the
origin of life on earth.

Life on earth is organic. It is composed of organic molecules, which
are simply the compounds of carbon, excluding carbonates and carbon
dioxide. The idea that particles of inorganic dust may take on a life
of their own is nothing short of alien, going beyond the silicon-based
life forms favoured by some science fiction stories.

Now, an international team has discovered that under the right
conditions, particles of inorganic dust can become organised into
helical structures. These structures can then interact with each other
in ways that are usually associated with organic compounds and life

V.N. Tsytovich of the General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of
Science, in Moscow, working with colleagues there and at the Max-
Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany and
the University of Sydney, Australia, has studied the behaviour of
complex mixtures of inorganic materials in a plasma. Plasma is
essentially the fourth state of matter beyond solid, liquid and gas,
in which electrons are torn from atoms leaving behind a miasma of
charged particles.

Until now, physicists assumed that there could be little organisation
in such a cloud of particles. However, Tsytovich and his colleagues
demonstrated, using a computer model of molecular dynamics, that
particles in a plasma can undergo self-organization as electronic
charges become separated and the plasma becomes polarized. This effect
results in microscopic strands of solid particles that twist into
corkscrew shapes, or helical structures. These helical strands are
themselves electronically charged and are attracted to each other.

Quite bizarrely, not only do these helical strands interact in a
counterintuitive way in which like can attract like, but they also
undergo changes that are normally associated with biological
molecules, such as DNA and proteins, say the researchers. They can,
for instance, divide, or bifurcate, to form two copies of the original
structure. These new structures can also interact to induce changes in
their neighbours and they can even evolve into yet more structures as
less stable ones break down, leaving behind only the fittest
structures in the plasma.

So, could helical clusters formed from interstellar dust be somehow
alive? “These complex, self-organized plasma structures exhibit all
the necessary properties to qualify them as candidates for inorganic
living matter,” says Tsytovich, “they are autonomous, they reproduce
and they evolve”.

He adds that the plasma conditions needed to form these helical
structures are common in outer space. However, plasmas can also form
under more down to earth conditions such as the point of a lightning
strike. The researchers hint that perhaps an inorganic form of life
emerged on the primordial earth, which then acted as the template for
the more familiar organic molecules we know today.

New J. Phys. 9 (2007) 263
PII: S1367-2630(07)48657-8

From plasma crystals and helical structures towards inorganic living

V N Tsytovich1,5, G E Morfill2, V E Fortov3, N G Gusein-Zade1, B A
Klumov2 and S V Vladimirov4

1 General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Vavilova str.
38, Moscow, 119991, Russia
2 Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, 85740 Garching,
3 Insitute of Physics of Extremal State of Matter, Russian Academy of
Science, Moscow, Russia
4 School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia

5 Author to whom any correspondence should be addressed.

E-mail: tsyto [at] mpe [dot] mpg [dot] de

Received 19 April 2007
Published 14 August 2007

Abstract. Complex plasmas may naturally self-organize themselves into
stable interacting helical structures that exhibit features normally
attributed to organic living matter. The self-organization is based on
non-trivial physical mechanisms of plasma interactions involving over-
screening of plasma polarization. As a result, each helical string
composed of solid microparticles is topologically and dynamically
controlled by plasma fluxes leading to particle charging and over-
screening, the latter providing attraction even among helical strings
of the same charge sign. These interacting complex structures exhibit
thermodynamic and evolutionary features thought to be peculiar only to
living matter such as bifurcations that serve as `memory marks’, self-
duplication, metabolic rates in a thermodynamically open system, and
non-Hamiltonian dynamics. We examine the salient features of this new
complex `state of soft matter’ in light of the autonomy, evolution,
progenity and autopoiesis principles used to define life. It is
concluded that complex self-organized plasma structures exhibit all
the necessary properties to qualify them as candidates for inorganic
living matter that may exist in space provided certain conditions
allow them to evolve naturally.


* 1. Introduction
* 2. Plasma over-screening and plasma fluxes
* 3. Helical dust structures
* 4. Replication of helical dust structures
* Acknowledgment
* Appendix
o A.1. Methods used for description of plasma crystal
o A.2. Numerical simulation methods
* References

1. Introduction

A universal definition of life [1] relates it to autonomy and open-
ended evolution [2], i.e. to autonomous systems with open-ended
evolution/self-organization capacities. Thus a number of features
follow: some energy transduction apparatus (to ensure energy current/
flow); a permeable active boundary (membrane); two types of
functionally interdependent macromolecular components (catalysts and
records)–in order to articulate a `genotype-phenotype’ decoupling
allowing for an open-ended increase in the complexity of the
individual agents (individual and `collective’ evolution) [3]. The
energy transduction system is necessary to `feed’ the structure; the
boundary as well as a property called `autopoiesis’ (which is a
fundamental complementarity between the structure and function [4, 5])
are necessary to sustain organized states of dissipative structures
stable for a long period of time. To maintain a living organic state,
it is also necessary to process nutrients into the required
biochemical tools and structures through metabolism which in
mathematical terms can be seen as a mapping f that transforms one
metabolic configuration into another (and is invertible) f(f) = f;
i.e. it is a function that acts on an instance of itself to produce
another instance of itself [6, 7]. Finally, memory and reproduction of
organic life are based on the properties of DNA which are negatively
charged macromolecules exhibiting an important property of replication

Self-organization of any structure needs energy sources and sinks in
order to decrease the entropy locally. Dissipation usually serves as a
sink, while external sources (such as radiation of the Sun for organic
life) provide the energy input. Furthermore, memory and reproduction
are necessary for a self-organizing dissipative structure to form a
`living material’. The well known problem in explaining the origin of
life is that the complexity of living creatures is so high that the
time necessary to form the simplest organic living structure is too
large compared to the age of the Earth. Similarly, the age of the
Universe is also not sufficient for organic life to be created in a
distant environment (similar to that on the Earth) and then
transferred to the Earth.

Can faster evolution rates be achieved for non-organic structures, in
particular, in space consisting mostly of plasmas and dust grains,
i.e. of natural components spread almost everywhere in the Universe?
If yes, then the question to address is: are the above necessary
requirements of self-organization into a kind of a `living creature’
present in plasmas containing macro-particles such as dust grains?
Here, we discuss new aspects of the physics of dust self-organization
that can proceed very fast and present an explanation of the grain
condensation into highly organized structures first observed as plasma
crystals in [9, 10]. We stress that, previously, important features of
these structures were not clearly related to their peculiar physics
such as plasma fluxes on to grain surfaces, sharp structural
boundaries, and bifurcations in particle arrangements that can serve
as memory marks and help reproduction. The plasma fluxes strongly
influence interactions of dust particles, sustain the boundaries, and
realize the energy transduction. We discuss experiments which indicate
the natural existence of the memory marks in helical dust structures,
similar to DNA, and natural mechanisms of the helical dust structure

2. Plasma over-screening and plasma fluxes

An important feature of inorganic structures is the presence of
`memory marks’ existing as `rigid marks’ in common crystal systems. In
contrast, observations of crystals formed by dust in a plasma (plasma
crystals) [9, 10] demonstrate no rigid marks because of unusual
properties of plasma crystals such as large coupling constant, low
temperature of phase transition, and large separation of grains. These
puzzling properties can be resolved by employing the over-screening of
grain fields, the effect that was clearly realized only recently. The
over-screening appears in the presence of plasma fluxes on to the
grain surfaces [11]-[13]. As a result, an attraction well appears as
indicated schematically in figure 1. This potential well is usually
shallow and located at a distance much larger than the Debye screening
length λD (an example shown in figure 1 uses parameters typical for
plasma crystal experiments [9, 10]). A shallow potential well explains
the large coupling constant as well as the low temperature of phase
transitions. By extracting the pure Coulomb potential of interaction
and introducing the screening factor ψ, the grain interaction
potential is V = Zd2e2ψ/r (Zd is the grain charge in units of electron
charge -e). Due to over-screening, the value of ψ changes its sign at
large distances as indicated in figure 1. At the potential well
minimum, the screening factor ψmin is negative. The value |ψmin|
determines the temperature of the associated phase transition Td and
also characterizes the distance rd = rd(|ψmin|) of the well minimum
(in the simplest case, r_{\rm d}\approx 1/\sqrt{\vert\psi_{\rm min}
\vert} ). If condensation of grains (or grain pairing) occurs, the
grains will be localized at the minimum of the attraction well, rd.
The corresponding criterion can be expressed through the coupling
constant Γ (which is the ratio of the potential energy of the grain
interaction to their kinetic energy) as Γ > Γcr≡Zd2e2/rdTd = 1/|ψmin|.
Thus, |ψmin| determines values of the inter-grain distance, the
temperature of transition, and the coupling constant. For a shallow
attractive well, |ψmin| ll 1 and Γ gg 1. This qualitatively explains
thelarge value of Γ observed in experiments. The model predicts Γcr to
be of the order of the difference between the maximum grain
interaction and the temperature of transition (about 3-4 orders of
magnitude). As a result, the concept of plasma over-screening agrees
well [12, 13] with major experimental observations [9, 10]. It also
applies for description of dust helical structures and leads to the
possibility of unusual `memory marks’ impossible in common crystals.

Figure 1

Figure 1. Sketch of the screening factor ψ of the grain interaction
potential. The grain interaction energy V can be described in units of
pure (not screened) Coulomb interactions of grains V = ψ(Zd2e2/r) as a
function of the distance between the grains in units of the linear
Debye screening length. The distance rd displays the position of the
minimum of the attraction well and has a typical experimental value of
200 μm [9, 10]. This corresponds to the inter-grain distances observed
during the phase transition to the plasma crystal state. The value of |
ψmin| varies between 10-2 and 10-4 for different models and different
experiments. This value is in accordance with the ratio of the
interaction at the minimum of the potential well and the maximum
interaction energy corresponding to ψ = 1, respectively. The value of
coupling constant Γ = 1/|ψmin| ranges from 102 up to 104 in accordance
with observations.

We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate that a
random distribution of grains, interacting via the potential shown in
figure 1 with a shallow attractive well |ψmin|approx10-3 and
experiencing background friction and stochastic kicks, forms spherical
grain crystals. In figure 2, we show results of these simulations.
Application of this model is of double importance. Firstly, we resolve
the problems of laboratory observations, and secondly, we predict the
possible existence of large plasma poly-crystals in space–a new state
of matter which is unexplored so far. Here, an important point for
space applications is that the attraction potential well is shallow
and therefore even weak dissipation can cause the grain capture in the

Figure 2

Figure 2. Molecular dynamics simulations of dusty cloud evolution. The
figure shows snapshots of the velocity field and grain positions: (a)
corresponds to the initial state (t = 0) of the cloud, (b) t = 0.3 s
and (c) t = 3 s, respectively. The velocity magnitude is color-coded.
It rises from blue to red by a factor of five. Initially, 103μ m-size
grains were distributed randomly over the sphere of radius about rd
(see figure 1) and the pair interactions between grains are described
by the potential shown in figure 1. Grain motions are damped by
friction (to model viscosity of plasma neutral component) and
stochastically accelerated by Langevin force (to model plasma
fluctuations). The simulations reveal formation of a stable self-
confined spherical structure in time. Local order analysis shows that
some grains (about a few percents of their total number) have hcp
lattice type, while the majority of grains are in a liquid state.

Physically, the attraction appears due to the electrostatic self-
energy of grains, supported by plasma fluxes continuously absorbed by
the grains. The fluxes are necessary to sustain the grain charges and
appear almost immediately as soon as a particle is embedded in the
plasma. The self-energy of grains is much larger than their kinetic
and potential energies so that its (even small) changes can strongly
influence grain interactions. It was first shown in [11] that for a
fixed source of plasma fluxes, the electrostatic energy of two grains
decreases when they approach each other. As the self-energy is
supported by continuous plasma fluxes, work has to be done to maintain
them and this can almost compensate the associated changes of self-
energy. Nevertheless, a full compensation does not occur if the
distance between the grains is large. At present it is understood [12,
13] that this phenomenon is a general feature of grain interactions in
a plasma. The fluxes on grains depend on the electrostatic
polarization charges of the grains and the polarization charges depend
on the fluxes and create an accumulation of excess plasma charges
between the grains. These plasma charges exhibit the sign opposite to
that of likely charged interacting grains and therefore cause the
attraction. The appearance of grain attraction is a general phenomenon
which converts the grain containing matter into a new unusual state.

Effects of plasma fluxes lead to gravitation-like instabilities with
an effective gravitational constant GeffapproxZd2e2|ψminmd2. For a
dust size aapprox3 μm, a mass density of the dust material of 2g cm-2,
Zdapprox103 and |ψmin|approx10-4, the effective gravitational constant
Geff is approximately 6×104 cgs which is 1012 times larger than the
usual gravitational constant G = 6.7×10-8 cqs. The effective Jeans
length of this instability has the size of order rd. The effective
gravity affects only dust grains and therefore plasmas can be
influenced by this attraction only through their interactions with the
grains. The new effective instability of a dusty plasma leads to
structurization of dust clouds similar to the effects caused by the
usual gravitational instability.

Dust structures self-organized in the plasma environment have sharp
boundaries such that they are isolated from each other by regions
without grains (dust voids). This effect, observed in the laboratory
as well as in micro-gravity experiments onboard the ISS [14], is well
explained theoretically [15, 16]. The structures and crystals should
self-generate additional confining forces due to the plasma fluxes
directed into the structures, i.e. these structures serve as sinks of
plasmas and the ram pressure of the plasma fluxes acts on the
structures to make them self-organized, self-confined and dissipative.
This self-contraction should be added to the the grain pairing; their
joint effect leads to formation of dust helical structures.

3. Helical dust structures

Helical dust structures (an example is given in figure 3(a)), can be
considered as equally separated flat structures with constant rotation
angle between the planes (figure 3(b)). Their properties are of
special interest for the problems discussed here. Figure 3(a)
illustrates double helical dust structures similar to DNA. Molecular
dynamics simulations of interacting grains with an additional gas
friction show that any cylindrically symmetric grain distribution
converts in time into a stable self-confined helical structure [17].
These specific stable dust structures form due to the grain pairing
attraction as well as due to the external plasma flux created by the
whole structures (and the anticipated ram pressure). In experiments in
gas discharges with a longitudinal external electric field forming
striations [18, 19], modulated cylindrical grain crystals were
observed. As predicted by numerical simulations [17], these
cylindrical crystals convert into helical structures with fewer grains
per unit length. According to numerical experiments, highly symmetric
spherical dust structures can be formed only when the spherical
symmetry is externally supported (e.g. when all initial conditions are
spherically symmetric). In the other cases, even a small asymmetry
leads to formation of cylindrically symmetric and/or helical
structures. In nature, some asymmetry always exists and therefore
formation of helical structures is quite probable. First observations
of dust self-confined moving helical structures were done in dc
cryogenic gas discharges [20]. The particle traces, moving in a self-
organized way, are shown in figure 4. Similar ion helical structures
were also observed in laser cooling traps [21].

Figure 3

Figure 3. (a) and (b) Sketch of helical double winding grain
structures similar to DNA. (c) Bifurcations in (phi,D/Δ)–plane of
structures confined by external potential Kr2/2; phi is the rotational
angle in each plane of the helical structure; D is the diameter of the
helical structure and Δ is the spatial separation of the planes of the
helical structure; the line K = 0 corresponds to self-organized stable
structures without external confinement K = 0 but with the presence of
dust attraction [17].

Figure 4

Figure 4. (a) Traces of helical structures on the walls of the chamber
observed in dc cryogenic plasmas at Ti = 2.7 K. The traces of conical
helical structure are shown black on the green background of discharge
at several distances from the top of it; x = 0 mm–the `head’ of the
structure, x = 3 mm–the middle of the structure and 5 mm–the end of
the structure. The whole structure looks like a `worm’, hollow inside
(having a dust void inside) and moving on cylindrical surfaces around
the axis of discharge. (b) Sketch of the central part of the helical
structure of the `worm’ deduced from the traces left of the structure
on the wall of the discharge chamber, the grains are located at the
surfaces of a few cylinders inside each other [20].

Important features of dust helical structures observed in simulations
[17] and indicated by analytical investigation of stability of helical
structures and mode oscillations is the existence of numerous
bifurcations in the dependence of the helical winding angle upon the
diameter of the structure. An example of this helical structure
behavior is demonstrated schematically in figure 3(c). Bifurcations in
helical structures appear naturally and correspond to the critical
conditions when any slight change in the helical structure diameter D
results in a sudden change of the helical winding. We note that
various helical structures with different bifurcations can be obtained
in experiments using current cylindrical discharge plasma crystals by
continuously decreasing the number of grains injected into the system.
Numerical investigations show a universal character of these
bifurcations. The helical structures have the unique property of
bifurcations which can serve as memory marks. With increasing of
diameter of the structure suddenly the rotational angle of the
structure is changed. This is illustrated by figure 3(c) which shows
that an increase of diameter of the structure at certain radius there
appears possibility of presence of two equilibrium vales of the
rotational angle (the upper thick dashed line and the lower solid
line) instead of one possible equilibrium value for the rotational
angle before bifurcation (the upper thick line). After the bifurcation
the solid thick dashed line represents an unstable branch and the
solid lower line represents a stable branch. Thus the rotational angle
at some critical radius is changing abruptly.

These bifurcations can serve as possible memory marks for the
structures. The helical crystals can then store this information.

4. Replication of helical dust structures

Dust convection and dust vortex formation outside the structure is
another natural phenomenon observed in laboratory experiments and in
experiments onboard the ISS [14]-[16]. The physics of dust vortex
formation is related to the grain charge inhomogeneity and its
dependence on surrounding plasma parameters. The gradients of grain
charges are supported self-consistently by the structure, and they are
the reason for the non-potential character of the electrostatic force –
eZdE acting on the grains and causing the vortex formation. Dust
convection was observed in experiments on cylindrical dust crystals
formed in modulated gas discharges [18] (figure 5(a)) and was obtained
in numerical modeling [19] (figure 5(b)). It is important that the
helical crystals modulated in their radius are always surrounded by
self-created dust convection cells. The helical dust structures, after
they are formed, resemble features similar to those of DNA. In
particular, they can transfer information from one helical structure
to another via the dust convective cells surrounding any bifurcation
of the helical structure. A rough sketch of a possible model of the
helical grain structure reproduction is shown in figure 5(c).

Figure 5

Figure 5. (a) The observed grain convection surrounding the
cylindrical grain crystal. Different colors correspond to different
grain velocities [18], The velocities vary from about 0.4 cm s-1
(blue) up to 1.5 cm s-1 (red). (b) The dust convection obtained in
numerical simulations [19]. (c) Sketch of the model for helical
structure duplication (reproduction). See details in the text.

Let us discuss some details about possible sequences of events during
the reproduction. The abrupt change of the rotational angle will
create an inhomogeneity in random halo dust grains surrounding the
helical structure with grain charge gradient not collinear to the
electric field and will create a force forming pair of toroidal
vortices around the structure. For a negatively charged structure the
upper toroidal vortex has a clockwise rotation while the lower has an
anti-clockwise rotation. If another (second) helical structure has no
bifurcation and moves close to that with bifurcation the vortices
start to be created in this structure. Finally these vortices create
the bifurcation in the second structure and transfer the information
from the first structure to the other one.

The evolution of dust structures in the presence of plasma fluxes is
related to the characteristic frequency of dust motions. In first
instance, this can be estimated by the dust plasma frequency
ωpd~(Zd2e2/mdrd3)1/2, where md is the mass of a dust particle. We note
that characteristics of the potential well (located at rd) and
therefore the physics of plasma fluxes enter this expression via rd
and Zd. This consideration destroys one of the current myths in
astrophysics, namely, that the grain interaction is vanishing for
distances larger than the linear Debye screening radius. This is
obvious since inside the dust Jeans length (where the interactions are
still effective) many grains are present for most dust clouds in
space. For most situations, the plasma dust frequency of a few (or
even a fraction of) Hz leads to times extremely short compared to
typical astrophysical times. If grain structures exist in space, they
have collective modes of oscillations which in principle can be
detected as modulations of the infrared emission of different cosmic
sources. The effective Jeans size of dust clumping is in the range
that can be detected by the Spitzer telescope in observation of (the
closest to the Earth) formations of dust clouds around stars and star
outbursts preceding the formation of new planetary systems. The
program to measure low frequency regular modulations from dust clouds
with the effective structure sizes caused by the dust attraction
instability can be included in, e.g. the Spitzer telescope project.

Our analysis shows that if helical dust structures are formed in
space, they can have bifurcations as memory marks and duplicate each
other, and they would reveal a faster evolution rate by competing for
`food’ (surrounding plasma fluxes). These structures can have all
necessary features to form `inorganic life’. This should be taken into
account for formulation of a new SETI-like program based not only on
astrophysical observations but also on planned new laboratory
experiments, including those on the ISS. In the case of the success of
such a program one should be faced with the possibility of resolving
the low rate of evolution of organic life by investigating the
possibility that the inorganic life `invents’ the organic life.


This work was partially supported by the Australian Research Council.


A.1. Methods used for description of plasma crystal

Special methods have been developed to treat the plasma over-screening
for present experiments with large grain charges which cause the
screening to be nonlinear at short distances between the grains [9,
10]. The full nonlinear treatment of the screening polarization
charges and plasma fluxes is rather complicated [12]. The progress was
achieved on the basis of physical arguments showing that close to the
grains the influence of fluxes on polarization is small. Neglecting
the effect of fluxes the nonlinear screening was solved in [13] by
using the approach of [22]. Far from the grain the coupling of fluxes
and polarization charges became important but the polarization charge
became small and one can use the linear approach to find the coupling.
The matching method at the distances where the nonlinearity starts to
be weak have been applied successfully [13] to describe the nonlinear

A.2. Numerical simulation methods

The cooperative behavior of charged grains embedded in a plasma is due
to electrostatic coupling between the charged particles, which are
believed to interact via a potential which has both a repulsive and an
attractive short-range component. 3D molecular dynamics simulations
including electrostatic collisions between grains, neutral drag and
stochastic Langevin force were performed to simulate the evolution of
a dusty cloud. Free boundary conditions were used. To analyze the
local order of grains, we used the bond order parameter method [23].


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E-mail: tsyto [at] mpe [dot] mpg [dot] de


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Prof. Dr. Gregor E. Morfill
E-mail: gem [at] mpe [dot] mpg [dot] de

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Vladimir E. Fortov
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Email: S [dot] Vladimirov [at] physics [dot] usyd [dot] edu [dot] au

RE: posted by [ jstark ]

From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ]


Cat predicts deaths of nursing home residents
Wednesday, July 25, 2007

PROVIDENCE, R.I. – Oscar the cat seems to have an uncanny knack for
predicting when nursing home patients are going to die, by curling up
next to them during their final hours.

His accuracy, observed in 25 cases, has led the staff to call
family members once he has chosen someone. It usually means they have
less than four hours to live.

“He doesn’t make too many mistakes. He seems to understand when
patients are about to die,” said Dr. David Dosa in an interview. He
describes the phenomenon in a poignant essay in Thursday’s issue of
the New England Journal of Medicine.

“Many family members take some solace from it. They appreciate the
companionship that the cat provides for their dying loved one,” said
Dosa, a geriatrician and assistant professor of medicine at Brown

The 2-year-old feline was adopted as a kitten and grew up in a
third-floor dementia unit at the Steere House Nursing and
Rehabilitation Center. The facility treats people with Alzheimer’s,
Parkinson’s disease and other illnesses.

After about six months, the staff noticed Oscar would make his own
rounds, just like the doctors and nurses. He’d sniff and observe
patients, then sit beside people who would wind up dying in a few

Dosa said Oscar seems to take his work seriously and is generally
aloof. “This is not a cat that’s friendly to people,” he said.

Oscar is better at predicting death than the people who work
there, said Dr. Joan Teno of Brown University, who treats patients at
the nursing home and is an expert on care for the terminally ill

She was convinced of Oscar’s talent when he made his 13th correct
call. While observing one patient, Teno said she noticed the woman
wasn’t eating, was breathing with difficulty and that her legs had a
bluish tinge, signs that often mean death is near.

Oscar wouldn’t stay inside the room though, so Teno thought his
streak was broken. Instead, it turned out the doctor’s prediction was
roughly 10 hours too early. Sure enough, during the patient’s final
two hours, nurses told Teno that Oscar joined the woman at her

Doctors say most of the people who get a visit from the sweet-
faced, gray-and-white cat are so ill they probably don’t know he’s
there, so patients aren’t aware he’s a harbinger of death. Most
families are grateful for the advanced warning, although one wanted
Oscar out of the room while a family member died. When Oscar is put
outside, he paces and meows his displeasure.

No one’s certain if Oscar’s behavior is scientifically significant
or points to a cause. Teno wonders if the cat notices telltale scents
or reads something into the behavior of the nurses who raised him.

Nicholas Dodman, who directs an animal behavioral clinic at the
Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine and has read
Dosa’s article, said the only way to know is to carefully document how
Oscar divides his time between the living and dying.

If Oscar really is a furry grim reaper, it’s also possible his
behavior could be driven by self-centered pleasures like a heated
blanket placed on a dying person, Dodman said.

Nursing home staffers aren’t concerned with explaining Oscar, so
long as he gives families a better chance at saying goodbye to the

Oscar recently received a wall plaque publicly commending his
“compassionate hospice care.”

Volume 357:328-329   July 26, 2007
A Day in the Life of Oscar the Cat
David M. Dosa, M.D., M.P.H.

Oscar the Cat awakens from his nap, opening a single eye to survey his
kingdom. From atop the desk in the doctor’s charting area, the cat
peers down the two wings of the nursing home’s advanced dementia unit.
All quiet on the western and eastern fronts. Slowly, he rises and
extravagantly stretches his 2-year-old frame, first backward and then
forward. He sits up and considers his next move.

In the distance, a resident approaches. It is Mrs. P., who has been
living on the dementia unit’s third floor for 3 years now. She has
long forgotten her family, even though they visit her almost daily.
Moderately disheveled after eating her lunch, half of which she now
wears on her shirt, Mrs. P. is taking one of her many aimless strolls
to nowhere. She glides toward Oscar, pushing her walker and muttering
to herself with complete disregard for her surroundings. Perturbed,
Oscar watches her carefully and, as she walks by, lets out a gentle
hiss, a rattlesnake-like warning that says “leave me alone.” She
passes him without a glance and continues down the hallway. Oscar is
relieved. It is not yet Mrs. P.’s time, and he wants nothing to do
with her.

Oscar jumps down off the desk, relieved to be once more alone and in
control of his domain. He takes a few moments to drink from his water
bowl and grab a quick bite. Satisfied, he enjoys another stretch and
sets out on his rounds. Oscar decides to head down the west wing
first, along the way sidestepping Mr. S., who is slumped over on a
couch in the hallway. With lips slightly pursed, he snores peacefully
– perhaps blissfully unaware of where he is now living. Oscar
continues down the hallway until he reaches its end and Room 310. The
door is closed, so Oscar sits and waits. He has important business

Twenty-five minutes later, the door finally opens, and out walks a
nurse’s aide carrying dirty linens. “Hello, Oscar,” she says. “Are you
going inside?” Oscar lets her pass, then makes his way into the room,
where there are two people. Lying in a corner bed and facing the wall,
Mrs. T. is asleep in a fetal position. Her body is thin and wasted
from the breast cancer that has been eating away at her organs. She is
mildly jaundiced and has not spoken in several days. Sitting next to
her is her daughter, who glances up from her novel to warmly greet the
visitor. “Hello, Oscar. How are you today?”

Oscar takes no notice of the woman and leaps up onto the bed. He
surveys Mrs. T. She is clearly in the terminal phase of illness, and
her breathing is labored. Oscar’s examination is interrupted by a
nurse, who walks in to ask the daughter whether Mrs. T. is
uncomfortable and needs more morphine. The daughter shakes her head,
and the nurse retreats. Oscar returns to his work. He sniffs the air,
gives Mrs. T. one final look, then jumps off the bed and quickly
leaves the room. Not today.

Making his way back up the hallway, Oscar arrives at Room 313. The
door is open, and he proceeds inside. Mrs. K. is resting peacefully in
her bed, her breathing steady but shallow. She is surrounded by
photographs of her grandchildren and one from her wedding day. Despite
these keepsakes, she is alone. Oscar jumps onto her bed and again
sniffs the air. He pauses to consider the situation, and then turns
around twice before curling up beside Mrs. K.

One hour passes. Oscar waits. A nurse walks into the room to check on
her patient. She pauses to note Oscar’s presence. Concerned, she
hurriedly leaves the room and returns to her desk. She grabs Mrs. K.’s
chart off the medical-records rack and begins to make phone calls.

Within a half hour the family starts to arrive. Chairs are brought
into the room, where the relatives begin their vigil. The priest is
called to deliver last rites. And still, Oscar has not budged, instead
purring and gently nuzzling Mrs. K. A young grandson asks his mother,
“What is the cat doing here?” The mother, fighting back tears, tells
him, “He is here to help Grandma get to heaven.” Thirty minutes later,
Mrs. K. takes her last earthly breath. With this, Oscar sits up, looks
around, then departs the room so quietly that the grieving family
barely notices.

On his way back to the charting area, Oscar passes a plaque mounted on
the wall. On it is engraved a commendation from a local hospice
agency: “For his compassionate hospice care, this plaque is awarded to
Oscar the Cat.” Oscar takes a quick drink of water and returns to his
desk to curl up for a long rest. His day’s work is done. There will be
no more deaths today, not in Room 310 or in any other room for that
matter. After all, no one dies on the third floor unless Oscar pays a
visit and stays awhile.

Note: Since he was adopted by staff members as a kitten, Oscar the Cat
has had an uncanny ability to predict when residents are about to die.
Thus far, he has presided over the deaths of more than 25 residents on
the third floor of Steere House Nursing and Rehabilitation Center in
Providence, Rhode Island. His mere presence at the bedside is viewed
by physicians and nursing home staff as an almost absolute indicator
of impending death, allowing staff members to adequately notify
families. Oscar has also provided companionship to those who would
otherwise have died alone. For his work, he is highly regarded by the
physicians and staff at Steere House and by the families of the
residents whom he serves.

{Source Information : Dr. Dosa is a geriatrician at Rhode Island Hospital and an assistant
professor of medicine at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown
University – both in Providence.}

From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ]

Species Under Threat

Across America, millions of honey bees are abandoning their hives and
flying off to die, leaving beekeepers facing ruin and US agriculture
under threat. And to date, no one knows why.

BY Michael McCarthy

It has echoes of a murder mystery in polite society. There could
hardly be a more sedate and unruffled world than beekeeping, but the
beekeepers of the United States have suddenly encountered affliction,
calamity and death on a massive scale. And they have not got a clue
why it is happening.

Across the country, from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific, honey bee
colonies have started to die off, abruptly and decisively. Millions of
bees are abandoning their hives and flying off to die (they cannot
survive as a colony without the queen, who is always left behind).

Some beekeepers, especially those with big portable apiaries, or bee
farms, which are used for large-scale pollination of fruit and
vegetable crops, are facing commercial ruin – and there is a growing
threat that America’s agriculture may be struck a mortal blow by the
loss of the pollinators. Yet scientists investigating the problem have
no idea what is causing it.

The phenomenon is recent, dating back to autumn, when beekeepers along
the east coast of the US started to notice the die-offs. It was given
the name of fall dwindle disease, but now it has been renamed to
reflect better its dramatic nature, and is known as colony collapse

It is swift in its effect. Over the course of a week the majority of
the bees in an affected colony will flee the hive and disappear, going
off to die elsewhere. The few remaining insects are then found to be
enormously diseased – they have a “tremendous pathogen load”, the
scientists say. But why? No one yet knows.

The condition has been recorded in at least 24 states. It is having a
major effect on the mobile apiaries which are transported across the
US to pollinate large-scale crops, such as oranges in Florida or
almonds in California. Some have lost up to 90 per cent of their bees.

A reliable estimate of the true extent of the problem will not be
possible for another month or so, until winter comes to an end and the
hibernating bee colonies in the northern American states wake up. But
scientists are very worried, not least because, as there is no obvious
cause for the disease as yet, there is no way of tackling it.

“We are extremely alarmed,” said Diana Cox-Foster, the professor of
Entomology at Penn States University and one of the leading members of
a specially convened colony-collapse disorder working group.

“It is one of the most alarming insect diseases ever to hit the US and
it has the potential to devastate the US beekeeping industry. In some
ways it may be to the insect world what foot-and-mouth disease was to
livestock in England.”

Most of the pollination for more than 90 commercial crops grown
throughout the United States is provided byApis mellifera, the honey
bee, and the value from the pollination to agricultural output in the
country is estimated at $14.6bn (£8bn) annually. Growers rent about
1.5 million colonies each year to pollinate crops – a colony usually
being the group of bees in a hive.

California’s almond crop, which is the biggest in the world,
stretching over more than half a million acres over the state’s
central valley, now draws more than half of the mobile bee colonies in
America at pollinating time – which is now. Some big commercial
beekeeping operations which have been hit hard by the current disease
have had to import millions of bees from Australia to enable the
almond trees to be pollinated.

Some of these mobile apiaries have been losing 60 or 70 per cent of
their insects, or even more. “A honey producer in Pennsylvania doing
local pollination, Larry Curtis, has gone from 1,000 bee colonies to
fewer than eight,” said Professor Cox-Foster. The disease showed a
completely new set of symptoms, “which does not seem to match anything
in the literature”, said the entomologist.

One was that the bees left the hive and flew away to die elsewhere,
over about a week. Another was that the few bees left inside the hive
were carrying “a tremendous number of pathogens” – virtually every
known bee virus could be detected in the insects, she said, and some
bees were carrying five or six viruses at a time, as well as fungal
infections. Because of this it was assumed that the bees’ immune
systems were being suppressed in some way.

Professor Cox-Foster went on: “And another unusual symptom that we’re
are seeing, which makes this very different, is that normally when a
bee colony gets weak and its numbers are decreasing, other
neighbouring bees will come and steal the resources – they will take
away the honey and the pollen.

“Other insects like to take advantage too, such as the wax moth or the
hive beetle. But none of this is happening. These insects are not
coming in.

“This suggests that there is something toxic in the colony itself
which is repelling them.”

The scientists involved in the working group were surveying the dead
colonies but did not think the cause of the deaths was anything
brought in by beekeepers, such as pesticides, she said.

Another of the researchers studying the collapses, Dennis van
Engelsdorp, a bee specialist with the State of Pennsylvania, said it
was still difficult to gauge their full extent. It was possible that
the bees were fleeing the colonies because they sensed they themselves
were diseased or affected in some way, he said. This behaviour has
been recorded in other social insects, such as ants.

The introduction of the parasitic bee mite Varroa in 1987 and the
invasion of the Africanised honey bee in 1990 have threatened honey
bee colonies in the US and in other parts of the world, but although
serious, they were easily comprehensible; colony collapse disorder is
a deep mystery.

One theory is that the bees may be suffering from stress as beekeepers
increasingly transport them around the country, the hives stacked on
top of each other on the backs of trucks, to carry out pollination
contracts in orchard after orchard, in different states.

Tens of billions of bees are now involved in this “migratory”
pollination. An operator might go from pollinating oranges in Florida,
to apples in Pennsylvania, to blueberries in Maine, then back to
Massachusetts to pollinate cranberries.

The business is so big that pollination is replacing honey-making as
the main money earner at the top end of the beekeeping market, not
least because in recent years the US has been flooded with cheap honey
imports, mainly from Argentina and China.

A typical bee colony, which might be anything from 15,000 to 30,000
bees, would be rented out to a fruit grower for about $135 – a price
that is up from $55 only three years ago. To keep the bees’ energy up
while they are pollinating, beekeepers feed them protein supplements
and syrup carried around in large tanks.

It is in these migratory colonies where the biggest losses have been
seen. But the stress theory is as much speculation as anything else.
At the moment, the disappearance of America’s bees is as big a mystery
as the disappearance of London’s sparrows.

From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ]



Sunday, October 01, 2006 –


A faithful reader and commentator, “A. Magnus” writes the following
email, posted to FMNN General Feedback:

“Do you like October suprises? Is there a big bang coming to hit the
markets? If you believe that those in the know use insider information
before major events then you might be interested on the HUGE number of
October 6th put options for the big indexes. Check out the concentrated
puts on the Diamonds DOW Trust (DIA):

Ditto for the S&P Depository Receipts (SPY):

And the NASDAQ (QQQQ):

Even the Market Vectors Gold Miners has significant puts for October

Make no mistake – something wicked this way comes, and the smart money
has already taken preventative steps.”




by Michael C. Ruppert

[© COPYRIGHT, 2001, Michael C. Ruppert and FTW Publications, All Rights Reserved. May be reprinted or distributed
for non-profit purposes only.]
FTW, October 9, 2001 – Although uniformly ignored by the mainstream
U.S. media, there is abundant and clear evidence that a number of
transactions in financial markets indicated specific (criminal)
foreknowledge of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and
the Pentagon. In the case of at least one of these trades — which has
left a $2.5 million prize unclaimed — the firm used to place the “put
options” on United Airlines stock was, until 1998, managed by the man
who is now in the number three Executive Director position at the
Central Intelligence Agency. Until 1997 A.B. “Buzzy” Krongard had been
Chairman of the investment bank A.B. Brown. A.B. Brown was acquired by
Banker’s Trust in 1997. Krongard then became, as part of the merger,
Vice Chairman of Banker’s Trust-AB Brown, one of 20 major U.S. banks
named by Senator Carl Levin this year as being connected to money
laundering. Krongard’s last position at Banker’s Trust (BT) was to
oversee “private client relations”. In this capacity he had direct
hands-on relations with some of the wealthiest people in the world in a
kind of specialized banking operation that has been identified by the
U.S. Senate and other investigators as being closely connected to the
laundering of drug money.

Krongard (re?) joined the CIA in 1998 as counsel to CIA Director George
Tenet. He was promoted to CIA Executive Director by President Bush in
March of this year. BT was acquired by Deutsche Bank in 1999. The
combined firm is the single largest bank in Europe. And, as we shall
see, Deutsche Bank played several key roles in events connected to the
September 11 attacks.


Before looking further into these relationships it is necessary to look
at the insider trading information that is being ignored by Reuters,
The New York Times and other mass media. It is well documented that the
CIA has long monitored such trades – in real time – as potential
warnings of terrorist attacks and other economic moves contrary to U.S.
interests. Previous stories in FTW have specifically highlighted the
use of Promis software to monitor such trades.

It is necessary to understand only two key financial terms to
understand the significance of these trades, “selling short” and “put

“Selling Short” is the borrowing of stock, selling it at current market
prices, but not being required to actually produce the stock for some
time. If the stock falls precipitously after the short contract is
entered, the seller can then fulfill the contract by buying the stock
after the price has fallen and complete the contract at the pre-crash
price. These contracts often have a window of as long as four months.

“Put Options” are contracts giving the buyer the option to sell stocks
at a later date. Purchased at nominal prices of, for example, $1.00 per
share, they are sold in blocks of 100 shares. If exercised, they give
the holder the option of selling selected stocks at a future date at a
price set when the contract is issued. Thus, for an investment of
$10,000 it might be possible to tie up 10,000 shares of United or
American Airlines at $100 per share, and the seller of the option is
then obligated to buy them if the option is executed. If the stock has
fallen to $50 when the contract matures, the holder of the option can
purchase the shares for $50 and immediately sell them for $100 –
regardless of where the market then stands. A call option is the
reverse of a put option, which is, in effect, a derivatives bet that
the stock price will go up.

A September 21 story by the Israeli Herzliyya International Policy
Institute for Counter terrorism, entitled “Black Tuesday: The World’s
Largest Insider Trading Scam?” documented the following trades
connected to the September 11 attacks:

– Between September 6 and 7, the Chicago Board Options Exchange saw
purchases of 4,744 put options on United Airlines, but only 396 call
options. Assuming that 4,000 of the options were bought by people with
advance knowledge of the imminent attacks, these “insiders” would have
profited by almost $5 million.

– On September 10, 4,516 put options on American Airlines were bought
on the Chicago exchange, compared to only 748 calls. Again, there was
no news at that point to justify this imbalance; Again, assuming that
4,000 of these options trades represent “insiders”, they would
represent a gain of about $4 million.

– [The levels of put options purchased above were more than six times
higher than normal.]

– No similar trading in other airlines occurred on the Chicago exchange
in the days immediately preceding Black Tuesday.

– Morgan Stanley Dean Witter & Co., which occupied 22 floors of the
World Trade Center, saw 2,157 of its October $45 put options bought in
the three trading days before Black Tuesday; this compares to an
average of 27 contracts per day before September 6. Morgan Stanley’s
share price fell from $48.90 to $42.50 in the aftermath of the attacks.
Assuming that 2,000 of these options contracts were bought based upon
knowledge of the approaching attacks, their purchasers could have
profited by at least $1.2 million.

– Merrill Lynch & Co., which occupied 22 floors of the World Trade
Center, saw 12,215 October $45 put options bought in the four trading
days before the attacks; the previous average volume in those shares
had been 252 contracts per day [a 1200% increase!]. When trading
resumed, Merrill’s shares fell from $46.88 to $41.50; assuming that
11,000 option contracts were bought by “insiders”, their profit would
have been about $5.5 million.

– European regulators are examining trades in Germany’s Munich Re,
Switzerland’s Swiss Re, and AXA of France, all major reinsurers with
exposure to the Black Tuesday disaster. [FTW Note: AXA also owns more
than 25% of American Airlines stock making the attacks a “double
whammy” for them.]

On September 29, 2001 – in a vital story that has gone unnoticed by the
major media – the San Francisco Chronicle reported, “Investors have yet
to collect more than $2.5 million in profits they made trading options
in the stock of United Airlines before the Sept. 11, terrorist attacks,
according to a source familiar with the trades and market data”.

“The uncollected money raises suspicions that the investors – whose
identities and nationalities have not been made public – had advance
knowledge of the strikes”. They don’t dare show up now. The suspension
of trading for four days after the attacks made it impossible to
cash-out quickly and claim the prize before investigators started

“October series options for UAL Corp. were purchased in highly unusual
volumes three trading days before the terrorist attacks for a total
outlay of $2,070; investors bought the option contracts, each
representing 100 shares, for 90 cents each. [This represents 230,000
shares]. Those options are now selling at more than $12 each. There are
still 2,313 so-called “put” options outstanding [valued at $2.77
million and representing 231,300 shares] according to the Options
Clearinghouse Corp”.

“The source familiar with the United trades identified Deutsche Bank
Alex. Brown, the American investment banking arm of German giant
Deutsche Bank, as the investment bank used to purchase at least some of
these options” This was the operation managed by Krongard until as
recently as 1998.

As reported in other news stories, Deutsche Bank was also the hub of
insider trading activity connected to Munich Re. just before the


Understanding the interrelationships between CIA and the banking and
brokerage world is critical to grasping the already frightening
implications of the above revelations. Let’s look at the history of
CIA, Wall Street and the big banks by looking at some of the key
players in CIA’s history.

Clark Clifford – The National Security Act of 1947 was written by Clark
Clifford, a Democratic Party powerhouse, former Secretary of Defense,
and one-time advisor to President Harry Truman. In the 1980s, as
Chairman of First American Bancshares, Clifford was instrumental in
getting the corrupt CIA drug bank BCCI a license to operate on American
shores. His profession: Wall Street lawyer and banker.

John Foster and Allen Dulles – These two brothers “designed” the CIA
for Clifford. Both were active in intelligence operations during WW II.
Allen Dulles was the U.S. Ambassador to Switzerland where he met
frequently with Nazi leaders and looked after U.S. investments in
Germany. John Foster went on to become Secretary of State under Dwight
Eisenhower and Allen went on to serve as CIA Director under Eisenhower
and was later fired by JFK. Their professions: partners in the most
powerful – to this day – Wall Street law firm of Sullivan, Cromwell.

Bill Casey – Ronald Reagan’s CIA Director and OSS veteran who served as
chief wrangler during the Iran-Contra years was, under President
Richard Nixon, Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission. His
profession: Wall Street lawyer and stockbroker.

David Doherty – The current Vice President of the New York Stock
Exchange for enforcement is the retired General Counsel of the Central
Intelligence Agency.

George Herbert Walker Bush – President from 1989 to January 1993, also
served as CIA Director for 13 months from 1976-7. He is now a paid
consultant to the Carlyle Group, the 11th largest defense contractor in
the nation, which also shares joint investments with the bin Laden

A.B. “Buzzy” Krongard – The current Executive Director of the Central
Intelligence Agency is the former Chairman of the investment bank A.B.
Brown and former Vice Chairman of Banker’s Trust.

John Deutch – This retired CIA Director from the Clinton Administration
currently sits on the board at Citigroup, the nation’s second largest
bank, which has been repeatedly and overtly involved in the documented
laundering of drug money. This includes Citigroup’s 2001 purchase of a
Mexican bank known to launder drug money, Banamex.

Nora Slatkin – This retired CIA Executive Director also sits on
Citibank’s board.

Maurice “Hank” Greenburg – The CEO of AIG insurance, manager of the
third largest capital investment pool in the world, was floated as a
possible CIA Director in 1995. FTW exposed Greenberg’s and AIG’s long
connection to CIA drug trafficking and covert operations in a two-part
series that was interrupted just prior to the attacks of September 11.
AIG’s stock has bounced back remarkably well since the attacks. To read
that story, please go to

One wonders how much damning evidence is necessary to respond to what
is now irrefutable proof that CIA knew about the attacks and did not
stop them. Whatever our government is doing, whatever the CIA is doing,
it is clearly NOT in the interests of the American people, especially
those who died on September 11.