From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ]

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http://www.nydailynews.com/news/2008/01/27/2008-01-27_empire_state_bu…

Empire State Building car zap mystery
BY Richard Weir  /  January 27th 2008

In the shadow of the Empire State Building lies an “automotive Bermuda
Triangle” – a five-block radius where vehicles mysteriously die.

No one is sure what’s causing it, but all roads appear to lead to the
looming giant in our midst – specifically, its Art Deco mast and 203-

“We get about 10 to 15 cars stuck near there every day,” said Isaac
Leviev, manager of Citywide Towing, the AAA’s exclusive roadside
assistance provider from 42nd St. to the Battery. “You pull the car
four or five blocks to the west or east and the car starts right up.”

Motorists like Russell Valeev, 25, learn about it the hard way.

“The lights work, the horn works, everything. But it won’t start,”
Valeev, a driver for Golden Touch Transportation said one recent
evening as he sat in his 2005 Ford van with the hood propped open on
E. 35th St., between Lexington and Park Aves. “It’s my job. No money.”

The 102-story building, at Fifth Ave. between 33rd and 34th Sts., has
been home to broadcast equipment since its opening in 1931, when RCA
installed an experimental TV antenna.

Since the 9/11 attacks destroyed the twin towers, the building has
regained its status as the leading transmission site for commercial
broadcast outfits, with 13 TV and 19 FM stations mounting antennas on
its spire.

The Empire State Building Co., which refused to provide the Daily News
a list of its antennas, denied it has created any “adverse impact” on
automobiles.

“If the claim were indeed true, the streets in the vicinity of the
building would be constantly littered with disabled vehicles,” the
building’s owner said.

According to many doormen in the area, they often are.

“They park here on the block and when they come back and try to leave,
they can’t start their cars,” said Martin Deda, a doorman at 16 Park
Ave., which fronts E. 35th St.

“I’ve seen a lot of cars get towed away,” said a doorman at 35 E. 35th
St. who gave only his first name, Joseph. “I see it all the time, at
least 10 times a week … I call it the ‘Empire State Building
Effect.'”

Automotive experts and engineers believe the problem stems from radio
frequency interference that’s “jamming” the remote keyless entry
systems of cars.

The remote keyless entry systems operate on specific wavelengths
assigned by the Federal Communications Commission, which governs the
bands and bandwidths of TV, radio, telephone and other transmissions.

The FCC said it has not received any complaints regarding interference
affecting autos in midtown, and Empire State Building officials don’t
believe the claims.

Yet some phantom transmission appears to cause the remote keyless
entry systems of scores of car owners to go haywire and stop talking
to their vehicles.

Abe Quinones was a drug rep in September 2002 when he parked his
brand-
new BMW 325i on the south side of E. 35th St., just west of Park Ave.

“As I was leaving, I went to click the remote to lock the doors, but
it didn’t work. I just thought it was the [key’s] battery,” he said.
He locked the car the old-fashioned way, using the button on the door.
When he returned, he was locked out.

“I was stuck there for three hours. I had to call for a tow truck,” he
said, adding that the driver jimmied open his door. “The minute he
stuck the key in the ignition the car started up.”

Lain Gutierrez, 39, a retired investment banker who lives in Times
Square, nearly had to shell out $500 for a rental SUV when a friend’s Jeep Liberty suddenly would not start while parked on E. 35th St., west of Lexington Ave., last month. “It was a bizarre, automotive Bermuda Triangle experience,” Gutierrez said. For nearly three hours, “The car was sitting there dead.” A tow truck driver told them about the radio waves zapping the car’s immobilizer chip. “We thought he was crazy,” Gutierrez said. Then the car started right up. PORTABLE UNIT Microwave Beam Stops Cars Dead BY Tracy Staedter / Nov. 29, 2007 The same microwave radiation that reheats pizza can be used to fry the electrical systems in cars, stopping them dead in their tracks. Emitted from a rooftop device, the radiation could be used by law enforcement officers to put an end to dangerous car chases or by military personnel as a non-lethal way of disabling vehicles that get too close for comfort. “The idea is to warn an automobile some distance away from a high- value target like a military barrack or a communication center. If they don’t comply, you just zap them and it prevents them from coming closer,” said James Tatoian, CEO of Eureka Aerospace in Pasadena, Calif. Tatoian and his team have been working on the device since 2003. The current prototype is about 5 feet long, 3 feet wide, a foot thick, and weighs just under 200 pounds. The technology uses the same kind of energy used in microwave ovens, but at a different frequency. Ovens typically operate at 2.45 Ghz, whereas the high-power car-stopping system is at 300 megahertz. In both cases, the radiation is above common radio frequencies and is not harmful to humans. “There are no biological effects,” said Tatoian. “We comply with every standard in the literature as far as biological impact.” To disable cars, the device first generates energy that is amplified using a generator. The energy is converted to microwave radiation and then directed, by way of a specially designed antenna, at the offender in a narrow beam. The higher the frequency of the radiation, the more directed the beam, which allows the user to aim the energy at vulnerable car parts, such as light bulb filaments, lug nuts, frame bolts, or windshield antenna. Having access to these locations is crucial because newer cars are made with lots of plastic parts, have rustproof paint that prevents electricity from conducting, and have computers already designed to withstand the electromagnetic energy coming from the car engine. One beam pulsed in a burst lasting just 50 nanoseconds is enough to disrupt a vehicle’s electrical system. The radiation can overload wires or damage or upset the car’s central microprocessor. In tests on four vehicles, the researchers were able to disable cars from 10 to 50 feet away. Such a device could go a long way to save time and lives in places like southern California, where highways stretch uninterrupted for long distances and car chases are common. “Once they get off the streets, they just go until they run out of gas,” said commander Charles “Sid” Heal of the Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department in Monterey Park, Calif. The department donated test cars for the experiments. A technology that would shut down a car’s computer could not only reduce the number of car chases, but could also allow police officers to intentionally stop a car in a location where the offender might have difficulty running from on foot. Heal said he would like to see the researchers add a light to beam, so that law enforcers could see where they are directing the beam and offenders would realize that they are on the receiving end of some kind of weapon. “We can put the visible light on them, and if we don’t get compliance, we’ll hit them with a device that kills the car,” said Heal. Tatoian thinks that with the proper funding, Eureka Aerospace can shrink the device in less than two years to a 50-pound appliance that looks like a plasma television and can disable cars from 600 feet away. Technology Description The high-power electromagnetic system (HPEMS) uses microwave energy to disable/damage vehicle’s electronic control module/microprocessors which control engine’s vital functions. The system is capable of (1) high-value asset perimeter protection from approaching hostile vehicles, (2) bringing cars to halt on urban, suburban roads and multi- lane highways, (3) perimeter protection for gas-oil (fueling) platform at sea and (4) day/night, all weather clandestine operations. Figures shown here depict HPEMS’ application for stopping vehicles on highways and perimeter protection of gas-oil fueling platform from approaching boats at sea. The focus originally is to build a compact portable tunable system to be integrated in a police car (Ford Crown Victoria) and having the following operational capabilities: * Operational range of frequencies tunable in the 350-1350 MHz range * Immobilizing all vehicles with microprocessors at the range exceeding 50 meters * HPEMS fits on a roof of a vehicle Once the car-hosted system is built and tested, Eureka Aerospace will transition the technology to building larger HPEMS for 5-km perimeter protection applications. HPEMS consists of 3 major elements: 1. Power Source 2. Tunable RF Oscillator 3. High-gain antenna The power source consists of 16-stage Marx generator having erected voltage in excess of 640 kV, generating high energy (103 J each) pulses at PRF=100 Hz, yielding 10 kW average power. Marx generator is being fed by 270 Vdc capacitor bank, which in turn is energized by a 12V, 2kJ/sec car alternator. The design goal is to achieve PRF=1000 Hz, thus increasing the average power by 10 dB. Tunable RF Oscillator consists of a two-plate variable length transmission line and a fast (less than 100 ps) closing spark-gap switch, which traps the pulses between the switch and the antenna (load) and thus converts Marx’s dc energy into microwave energy at a frequency controlled by the length of the transmission line. High-gain antenna constitutes an integral part of the oscillator, since it represents the load of the oscillator circuit. Its terminals are connected to the transmission line and it radiates due to the oscillating voltage on its terminals. In the development of antenna subsystem, the key elements are: (1) suitable impedance allowing for efficient radiation and yet permitting adequate oscillations to occur between the switch and antenna for having large Q, (2) antenna size and shape for achieving required gain and yet not be obtrusive. The candidate antennas include (a) horn, (b) spiral and (c) Impulse radiating antenna (IRA), with gain ranging from 16 dBi (at 350 MHz) to 28 dBi (at 1.35 GHz). The operational system will have multiple (HH and VV) or circular polarization. Tunable oscillator together with a high-power switch constitutes an integral part of the entire HPEMS. The subsystem will be tunable in the 350-1350 MHz range, where the most vulnerable frequencies for vehicles were determined during Phase II effort. The choice of a dielectric medium inside the switch, which will be based on the magnitude of the maximum voltage on its electrodes, the size of the gap between electrodes together with antenna impedance, will be selected to achieve the most efficient power transfer from Marx generator to the radiating antenna. Moreover, to accommodate large voltages, the option of using multi-channel switch oscillator system is being investigated. The overall objective of the HPEMS is to deliver at least 20 kV/m at the target vehicle of up to 50 m. Finally, to avoid collateral damage to other vehicles, particularly on multi-lane highways, HPEMS is designed to optimize the antenna beam size, given operational frequency and the limitations of the antenna aperture size, which, together with system operational procedures (distance to the target vehicle and aspect angle) will assure the “illumination” of the target vehicle only. The tables below cite 1) HPEMS features, advantages, and benefits and 2) HPEMS comparison with other key competing technologies. All current vehicle stopping systems, although affordable but highly ineffective, can be replaced by Eureka’s HPEMS. No interfacing equipment or facilities are needed for implementation of HPEMS technology. Current State of Development In April 2004, Eureka Aerospace conducted a series of tests at the Los Angeles Sheriff Department’s (LASD) Fleet maintenance facility, where the so-called vulnerable frequencies associated with the microprocessor pins controlling the most vital function of the Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) were measured for six vehicles including Chevy Lumina, Dodge truck, Ford Taurus, Ford Crown Victoria, Toyota 4Runner and Nissan Maxima. This, in turn, will allow for the optimum design of the HPEMS. Figure on the right presents a sample of the measurement results – frequency response of the Dodge Dakota’s ignition switch for both H and V-polarizations. Note the resonances at 760 and 1,250 MHz, which indicate that these are the “vulnerable” frequencies for this vehicle – clearly an optimal choice of HPEMS’ operational frequencies in this particular case. The determination of vehicle’s “vulnerable” frequencies plays a key role in the developing of an optimal high-power microwave system, resulting in the reduction of the system requirements on the radiated power, system size and weight. Earlier, Eureka Aerospace developed system concepts for both 5-km perimeter protection and vehicle immobilization on highways, where detailed analysis of the HPEMS and design curves for power and aperture requirements were carried out. Currently, a prototype HPEMS to be hosted by a Ford Crown Victoria is being fabricated at Eureka’s microwave laboratory with anticipated completion by October 2005, and subsequent full-scale tests in November 2005 at Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department’s (LASD) range facility. The Current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) is 6. The next step would be the development of a larger HPEMS system for MARCORSYSCOM and OPNAV(Navy) to be deployed on top of the building and oil-gas fueling platform, respectively, for a 5-km perimeter protection purpose. Advertisements From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ] http://isc.sans.org/diary.html More cable outages in the middle east BY Johannes Ullrich / 2008-02-01 “According to news reports, a third undersea cable to the middle east got cut. The third cable cut today was less important then the other two, but it was one of the systems used as a “backup” during the last few days. On Wednesday, two cables off the coast of Egypt got cut. Today, one more off the coast of Dubai was cut. Of course, three cuts in such a short time may look suspect. But don’t forget that you have “cascade failures” where backup systems go down due to overload once the primary system goes down. The cable that went down today wasn’t used much in part as it was known as less reliable. These cable cuts are in particular challenging as repair times are long (weeks) and there is little extra capacity. Other technologies like Satellites do not provide the same capabilities as cables. Connectivity to and from the Middle East as well as India is severely affected. Availability and disaster recovery planning is a frequently neglected security function. Newcomers to the security field are frequently attracted by “cool exploits”. But the true professional usually knows that boring and tedious tasks like disaster recovery planning will frequently save the business in the end.” New cable cut compounds net woes A submarine cable in the Middle East has been snapped, adding to global net problems caused by breaks in two lines under the Mediterranean on Wednesday. The Falcon cable, owned by a firm that operates one of the previously damaged cables, was snapped on Friday morning. The cause of the latest break has not been confirmed but a repair ship has been deployed, said owner Flag Telecom. Following the earlier break internet services were severely disrupted in Egypt, the Middle East and India. “The situation is critical for us in terms of congestion,” Omar Sultan, chief executive of Dubai’s ISP DU, told The Associated Press, following the most recent break. Wednesday’s incident caused disruption to 70% of the nationwide internet network in Egypt on Wednesday, while India suffered up to 60% disruption. Flag Telecom said a repair ship was expected to arrive at the site of the first break – 8.3km from Alexandria in Egypt – on 5 February, with repair work expected to take a week. A repair ship deployed to the second break – 56km from Dubai – was expected to arrive at the site in the “next few days”, the firm said. Web returns The first cable – the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) – was cut at 0800 on 30 January, the firm said. A second cable thought to lie alongside it – SEA-ME-WE 4, or the South East Asia-Middle East- West Europe 4 cable – was also split. FLAG is a 28,000km (17,400 mile) long submarine communications cable that links Australia and Japan with Europe via India and the Middle East. SEA-ME-WE 4 is a submarine cable linking South East Asia to Europe via the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East. The two cable cuts meant that the only cable in service connecting Europe to the Middle East via Egypt was the older Sea-M-We 3 system, according to research firm TeleGeography. The firm said the cuts reduced the amount of available capacity on the stretch of network between India and Europe by 75% percent. As a result, carriers in Egypt and the Middle East re-routed their European traffic around the globe, through South East Asia and across the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The cause of the break has still not been confirmed. The third break is unlikely to disrupt commerce in the region as many business are closed on Fridays. Initial reports suggested that it could have been snapped by a ship’s anchor. Internet service providers said they expected India’s to be back to about 80% of its usual speed by the end of Friday. In Egypt Minister of Communications and Information Technology Tarek Kamil said he expected to be at the same capacity within two days. “However, it’s not before ten days until the internet service returns to its normal performance,” Kamil told the state Al-Ahram newspaper. Mediterranean Cables Cut, Disrupting Communications BY Camilla Hall / Jan. 30 2008 Internet and telephone communications across the Middle East and India were disrupted after two submarine cable systems in the Mediterranean Sea were cut. Six ships were diverted from Alexandria port and one may have severed the cables with an anchor, said a spokesman for Flag Telecom Group Ltd., which operates one of the cables. The incident took place 8.3 kilometers (5.2 miles) from Alexandria beach in northern Egypt, the spokesman, who asked not to be named, said in an interview from Mumbai, India. India and countries across the Middle East experienced slow Internet connections and problems making international calls to the U.S. and Europe, the spokesman said. The break will take 12 to 15 days to fix, he said. “It’s a national disaster,” said Joseph Metry, network supervisor at Orascom Telecom Holding SAE, the biggest mobile- phone company in the Middle East and North Africa. The problem is affecting all Egyptian Internet users, Metry said in a phone interview from Cairo. The ships were diverted because of bad weather yesterday, he said. Yesterday’s bad weather conditions were felt in bordering Israel today, where public transportation, schools and most businesses in Jerusalem shut down, leaving the streets empty of traffic as the city braced for as much as 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. Rerouting Traffic Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Co., the United Arab Emirates’ second-biggest mobile-phone company, is working with the cable operators, Flag Telecom and SEA-ME-WE 4, to find out why the cables were cut and to determine when service can be restored, the company, known as du, said in an e-mailed release. “In the meantime, du has already started transferring Internet and international voice traffic through other cable systems that have not been affected, although some congestion may be expected at peak times until this issue is resolved,” the company said in the statement. Customers of AT&T Inc., the biggest U.S. phone company, have been affected, spokesman Michael Coe said. While the company is rerouting its clients’ traffic, it anticipates congestion since other carriers are doing the same thing, he said. He didn’t know how many customers were affected. San Antonio-based AT&T is part of the group that owns the cable, Coe said. AT&T had$4.7 billion in corporate sales last
quarter, or 27 percent of total revenue.

Repair Costs

Verizon Communications Inc., the second-biggest U.S. phone company,
said some customers have been affected by the cable break. The New
York-based company is switching those clients to other network routes,
said Verizon spokeswoman Linda Laughlin. Verizon also co-owns the
cable as part of a group with several other carriers, and the
companies pay regular maintenance fees that will cover the cost to
repair the cable, Laughlin said. She said she didn’t know how many
clients were affected.

“We’ll try to move customers over as soon as we can,” she said.
While it’s rare for undersea fiber cables to break, they can come
apart when geographic faults move, Laughlin said. Verizon’s corporate
sales unit, which provides phone and Internet service to multinational
corporations, had sales of $5.4 billion last quarter, or about 23 percent of overall revenue. Degraded Speed’ Bahrain Telecommunications Co., which holds the franchise to provide all of Bahrain’s public telecommunications, said in an e- mailed statement that “Internet services will still be available but at a degraded speed during peak hours.” Batelco, as the company is known, advised customers to give more priority to applications such as browsing and e-mail, which consume less bandwidth than actions such as file sharing. “The interruption in the service is beyond Batelco’s control but repair work is already under way by the providers and it is anticipated that full services will be resumed soon,” Batelco Corporate Affairs General Manager Ahmed Al Janahi said in the statement. Egypt’s Ministry of Telecommunications “has formed an emergency team to bring back the service quickly through several alternative paths such as the Suez Canal and satellite links,” according to a statement broadcast on Egyptian television. The cables are not easily broken so there must have been a “huge hit,” Orascom’s Metry said. From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ] http://blog.wired.com/defense/files/cia_report.pdf http://blog.wired.com/defense/2007/08/spooks-vs-psych.html Spooks vs. Psychics: Who Predicted 9/11 Better? By Sharon Weinberger / August 22, 2007 “Yesterday, we learned about the newly released CIA inspector general report slamming the spook agency for not foreseeing the Al Qaeda threat and 9/11. Now, Gary Bekkum at Starstream Research questions whether the CIA actually had the information it needed to foresee 9/11, and just didn’t realize it. How’s that? Well, the intel community’s psychics may have predicted it back in 1986. Who knew? Gary has been vigorously pursuing the spy-psychic connection for a while–(known formally as Remote Viewing)–and has spent a lot of time sifting through declassified documents relating to the intelligence program; he recently put up some of the declassified raw reports that he says may indicate foreknowledge of 9/11. I’ve pasted some excerpts below. It’s a basic question, if you think about it: who was better able to predict the devastation of 9/11? Was it the top analysts in the intelligence community, who had at their fingertips (or should’ve had) some of the best intelligence collected by technical means and human sources, or psychics (who, incidentally, were also in the employ of the intelligence community at the time)?” http://www.starstreamresearch.com/psychic_spy_9_11.htm CIA STAR GATE / SUN STREAK PSYCHIC SPY 911-IMAGES FROM 1986 We have compiled images from a CIA-released STAR GATE document of remote viewer aka psychic-spy sources tasked to warn of a major terrorist incident in New York City. At the time the once SECRET sessions were recorded, the implicit target was assumed to be the Liberty Celebration. Our interpretation is that the viewers attention was drawn some fifteen years into the future, to the events of September 11th, 2001, and as a result they reported images from both New York City and Washington, D.C. The psychic spy remote viewers were given envelopes describing the target (terrorist attack) and instructed not to open the envelopes. The instructions — what we consider to be the input to the ‘black box’ mechanics of remote viewing — included keywords like “hostile terrorist activities” and “reported.” Furthermore, they are instructed “so that we may have the opportunity to thwart any hostile terrorist activities” and are given a general location, near the Statue of Liberty. It is also important to understand that this input request was hidden within the envelopes and was not to be read by the viewers: “They were instructed not to open their envelopes nor share data with each other.” The report from psychic spy remote viewer SOURCE 21 from June 20, 1986 and June 23, 1986. On the first session of June 20th, 1986, Source 21 appears to have made contact with key aspects of the 9/11 attacks. The viewer’s attention is drawn towards America from the east, suggesting the origin of the terrorists homelands. The arrival of the terrorists brings “burning and loud noises.” It then appears that we are thrust into the future, following the failure of Flight 93 to crash into the U.S. Capitol Building. “President George W. Bush will lead the worldwide initiative with the playing of the national anthem on December 11 at a White House event at 8:46 a.m. (EST). This event will be web cast live on the White House web site.” I have struck out in red “analytical overlay” which is erroneous data injected by a viewer interpreting raw psychic intelligence within the context of their personal understanding of the images, as opposed to the actual target. “We are privileged to have with us today the families of many of the heroes on September the 11th, including the family of Jeremy Glick of Flight 93. His courage and self-sacrifice may have saved the White House. It is right and fitting that it is here we pay our respects.” The second session then takes Source 21 back to the intended target site of a terrorist attack against NYC. The site is described as “massive grey smooth” and “stepped.” At this point Source 21 locks into the target event: “Newspaper headlines have something to do with a collapse of a building — a lot of people hurt or injured … perhaps something to do with an aircraft … there is a perception of a large object falling — heading toward the building … I sense the object may cause structural damage as it crashes through the building. All of this takes place sometime in the future.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remote_viewing http://www.starstreamresearch.com/pr02.htm CIA FILES and 9/11 Remote Viewers Predicted 9/11 Style Attack Against Washington Did Military Remote Viewers identify a 9/11 pilot? (PRWEB) August 21, 2005 911 hijacker Ziad Jarrah may have been identified in the 1980’S by military remote viewers. A CIA Star Gate document, based upon input from four military sources, reveals that a pilot with a name similar to “Jerry, Gerard, or Geraldo” will “…fly to Washington D.C. with the mission of crashing into the US Capitol Building.” The date of the document appears to be prior to the 12th of December, 1983. There are two copies of the same document in the CIA Star Gate collection. The Star Gate collection covers more than twenty years of government sponsored research into anomalous mental phenomena (AMP) used by the military for intelligence collection. Remote viewing involves using human sources as psychic spies to acquire intelligence using their minds. The two documents of interest (they are nearly identical, except that one is marked “confidential”) appear to be from December of 1983. Paul H. Smith’s “Reading the Enemy’s Mind” tells of special INSCOM remote viewing sessions, held during a RAPT training program at the Monroe Institute in early December, 1983. These sessions were future oriented and tasked the viewers to locate future terrorist attacks in the Washington, D.C. area. [1] The CIA documents are of interest primarily for two reasons: There is the prediction of an event: An aircraft will “…fly to Washington, D.C. with the mission of crashing into the US Capitol building…” There is possible identification of the pilot: The pilot, “…not in the country as of 12 Dec 83, foreign, perhaps Iranian, speaks English and perhaps French… Name may be or sound like Jerry, Gerard, or Geraldo…” The remaining information, as presented in this document, appears at first glance to be seriously wrong. Starstream has discovered that removal of contextual overlay reveals interesting correlations to 911 events, including the identification of New York and New Jersey. The art of remote viewing is far from being an exact science. There is a signal to noise ratio involved, and errors are to be expected. There is the extraordinary distance in spacetime from 1983 to 2001. More importantly, the original data presented by the “four different sources” is not available. What is presented in the available document appears to be an analytical summary and interpretation of raw data provided by the viewers. The methodology used by the viewers is not known. Keywords and concepts from the original document can be mapped to the assumed target event of the failed attack against Washington on 9-11-2001. The terrorist pilot of United Flight 93 was Ziad Jarrah (also sometimes spelled Jarrahi), a name that might be considered to “…sound like Jerry Gerard, or Geraldo.” Jarrah, a foreigner from Lebanon, was not Iranian, however at least one passenger identified the terrorists on Flight 93 as possibly Iranian. Jarrah was of Middle Eastern origin and spoke both English and French. It should be noted that according to the document “This information was produced unofficially and is unconfirmed.” This suggests that Monroe Institute sessions may have been involved. [1] Paul H. Smith’s “Reading the Enemy’s Mind”: Smith writes that he was among the second group of INSCOM people to get RAPT’ed sometime around Dec. 2, 1983. See page 143. Thursday Dec. 8th, 1983 Future 15 Smith writes: “…we were to try to perceive events occurring over the next two years.” INSCOM RAPT Gateway Experience Precognition Session, ~ Dec 9th, 1983 Page 150-151 tells the story of a special future oriented remote viewing group session at the Monroe Institute. Smith mentions being tasked against a specific target: “Will there be a terrorist attack against government facilities in the Washington, D.C. area in next few months?” “Where will the next terrorist attack take place?” “When will the next attack take place?” Papers with the impressions were handed in, and according to Smith “…we never heard about it to my recollection.” http://www.starstreamresearch.com/ciarv911.htm STARSTREAM REPORT SSR-2005-08-25-CIA-STARGATERV911 NOTE: We assume for this particular exercise that remote viewing of distant targets, as practiced by the CIA and military intelligence agencies, is a real and viable method of intelligence collection. Thu, Aug 25, 2005 at 7:10 PM DRAFT COPY PRELIMINARY RESULTS ORIGINAL CIA DOCUMENTS: CIA-RDP96-00788ROO1900470003-9 CIA-RDP96-00788ROO1200070002-1 Following 9/11, an internal CIA report concluded that there had been “No examination of the potential for terrorists to use aircraft as weapons, as distinguished from traditional hijackings.” Introduction There are two copies of the same document found in the CIA STAR GATE Collection. This collection consists of recently released declassified material covering more than twenty years of government sponsored anomalous mental phenomena (AMP) used for information collection (RV – Remote Viewing) and material perturbation (RP – Remote Perturbation). The document appears to be from 1983, as there is a notation that the target subject (pilot) is “not in the country as of 12 Dec 83.” This document is of interest primary for two reasons: The prediction of an EVENT: An “aircraft”, will “…fly to Washington, D.C. with the mission of crashing into the US Capitol building…” The possible identification of the PILOT: The pilot, “…not in the country as of 12 Dec 83, foreign, perhaps Iranian, speaks English and perhaps French…name may be or sound like Jerry, Gerard, or Geraldo…” The remaining information, as presented in this document, appears at first glance to be seriously wrong. Interesting correlations appear upon closer examination. The art of remote viewing is far from being an exact science. There is a signal to noise ratio involved, and errors are to be expected. There is the extraordinary distance in spacetime from 1983 to 2001. More importantly for this report, the original data presented by the “four different sources” is not available. What appears in the document is an informal analytical summary and interpretation of the raw data provided by the viewers. The methodology used by the viewers is not known. It is noted within the document that “this information was produced unofficially and is unconfirmed.” The Account by Paul Smith The account by Paul Smith, telling of his involvement in special INSCOM/Monroe Institute RAPT sessions held during late 1983, fits the apparent time frame of the creation of the document. Smith writes that he was among the second group of INSCOM people to “get RAPT’ed” sometime around Dec. 2, 1983. [1] About the Thursday Dec. 8th, 1983 Future 15 sessions Smith writes: “…we were to try to perceive events occurring over the next two years.” INSCOM RAPT Gateway Experience Precognition Session, ~ Dec 9th, 1983 Page 150-151 of Paul Smith’s book, “Reading the Enemy’s Mind,” tells the story of a special future oriented remote viewing group session at the Monroe Institute. Smith mentions being tasked against a specific target: “Will there be a terrorist attack against government facilities in the Washington, D.C. area in next few months?” “Where will the next terrorist attack take place?” “When will the next attack take place?” Papers with the impressions were handed in, and according to Smith, “…we never heard about it to my recollection.” Interpretation In this extended preliminary report, STARSTREAM has dissected the original document using “conceptual remote viewing” methodology. This allows for reexamination of the data as presented in the original document. Key basic concepts can be mapped to a presumed target event: the failed attack against Washington, D.C. during the terrorist events of 9-11-2001. In this context, United Flight 93 appears to be the primary origin of the 1983 report. It is generally accepted that the hijackers aboard Flight 93 intended to fly the plane into the U.S. Capitol Building. The terrorist piloting Flight 93 was Ziad Jarrah (Jarrah is also sometimes spelled Jarrahi). Jarrah is a name that might be considered to “sound like Jerry, Gerard, or Geraldo.” We note that none of the names of other terrorists involved in the attack against Washington, D.C. bear any resemblance to Jerry, Gerard, or Geraldo. Jarrah, a foreigner from Lebanon, was not Iranian but was of middle eastern origin. Jarrah spoke both English and French. Examining the Data We begin with the assumption that remote viewed data represents a very noisy signal, buried in a set of non-local interactions separated from each other in ordinary spacetime by the limit of the speed of light. The basic black box with an input and an output forms the basis of our model. Since there are no accepted theories of a non-local signal (that is a signal that propagates faster than light, and is therefore outside of causality) we restrict the actual phenomenology to a black box, which accepts an input and produces an output. The internal workings of the black box are not important for our purposes. For the black box the choice of any input signal will affect the output signal. The primary problem we wish to avoid for our black box is CONCEPTUAL OVERLAY. Conceptual overlay results from the improper choice of an input signal into the black box. An input signal which results in an output that is strongly over-correlated to the input signal is considered to have been colored by conceptual overlay. The resulting output signal is generally localized and produces little or no information about the distant non-local target. Ideally we wish to maximize the output signal for non-local information, which can later be correlated to actual events. Our method relies on mapping and selection rather than pre-biased interpretations of the raw signal output of the black box. It is expected that the output is a noisy mixture of local and non-local signals. To optimize the correlations we focus on the primitive content rather than on the original analysis and conceptual overlay for our interpretation. Note that the primary distinguishing characteristic of this method is that we do not directly ask questions of the black box. Instead we allow the non-local signal to query our local reality. We observe any conceptual correlations to actual events. Interpretive mapping of the output data Given an existing set of data from a black box output measurement, we proceed by reducing the data to primitive conceptual elements. Ideas are the primary resource in this method, other sensory impressions are generally not discussed. Applying CON-RV to the CIA STAR GATE documents CIA-RDP96-00788ROO1900470003-9 CIA-RDP96-00788ROO1200070002-1 The session(s) which produced the data in this document appears to have been heavily front loaded with information. This is made more explicit given the likelihood that the RAPT sessions described by Paul Smith are the source of the information. We assume that the following keys were inserted into the input of the black box: “terrorist attack” “government facilities” “Washington, D.C. area” “will, when, where” and “next few months” Given the above, we strongly expect that these items will appear in some form in the output of the black box. We also expect some kind of mixture of the above local elements with a non-local source, given that altered states of consciousness were likely induced by the methodology at the Monroe Institute. This should result in a mixed output of noise, and local and non-local signal. OUR ANALYSIS OF THE DOCUMENT USING CON-RV METHODOLOGY APPARENT SOURCE “SOURCES: The sources for this information are Army personnel who have provided accurate information in the past. This information was produced unofficially and is unconfirmed. Four different sources provided information which contained the same basic elements. The following information are those elements which were generally repeated.” We conclude that the origin of the data is likely from INSCOM sessions held at the Monroe Institute in early December, 1983, based upon the account by Paul Smith, and the fact that the document states that the sources were Army personnel, that they provided accurate information in the past, and that the information was produced unofficially and is unconfirmed. The methodology was likely unconventional as explained by Paul Smith in his book. DESCRIPTION OF THE EVENT “EVENT: Sources state that a small “Lear Jet type aircraft” loaded with explosives (not further identified) will depart from a northern mid-west area, perhaps Chicago or near Chicago, and fly to Washington, D C with the mission of crashing into the US Capitol building. One source states that he feels there is a flight plan on file at National Airport.” The description of the event is heavily front loaded, as noted previously. The target “Washington, D.C.” was likely front loaded as an input to the black box, as was “terrorist” and “attack”, etc. Here are the primitive elements: Small aircraft, Learjet, jet-type, aircraft, loaded, explosives, depart, northern,Midwest, Chicago, mission, crashing, U.S. Capitol Building, flight plan, National Airport Mapping to the 9/11 events: “small” The 9/11 pilots flew test flights using small aircraft, including a fly over of the Washington, D.C. area. According to the 911 report Karl Rove first informed President Bush that a small, twin-engine plane had crashed into the World Trade Center. National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice told Bush that it was a twin-engine aircraft, and a commercial aircraft. “Learjet” NO direct match. We first concluded that this was analytical overlay, perhaps from the original identification as told to President Bush, of a small twin-engine commercial jet plane crashing into the World Trade Center. Later we discovered that a nearly identical description appears in the 9/11 Commission Report, pages 457-458: “A 1998 White House tabletop exercise chaired by Richard Clarke included a scenario in which a terrorist group loaded a Learjet with explosives and took off for a suicide mission to Washington. Military officials said they could scramble fighter jets from Langley Air Force Base to chase the aircraft, but they would need “executive” orders to shoot it down.” We wonder if this exercise was influenced or inspired by the 1983 CIA document. This also demonstrates that there is always the danger of picking up related but “off target” information during any remote viewing session. “jet-type” All 9/11 planes were 757 or 767 commercial jet aircraft “aircraft” The 9/11 plot involved the use of aircraft as weapons of mass destruction “loaded” The 9/11 pilots were concerned that the planes be loaded with the maximum amount of jet fuel “explosives” The jet fuel loaded into the planes was the explosive which turned the planes into WMD; the terrorists threatened to use an explosive bomb on Flight 93 “depart” The 9/11 aircraft involved in the Washington, D.C. area attacks departed from Newark, New Jersey, and Washington, D.C. “northern” The region of concern was NORAD’s northeastern watch; generally “northern” is a partial hit, as opposed to say “southern”, etc. “Midwest” The Midwest is mentioned in connection with Chicago and the Great Lakes area. Front loading by the question “where is the plane NOW” likely skewed this result. Further details, in particular the history of the aircraft, are required to check this out. “Chicago” Again there are indications that Chicago may have some relationship to the aircraft in the period near to 1983. NOTE ADDED 10-20-2005: 9/11 and Chicago One of the items that bothered me about the CIA document that likely resulted from the 1983 Monroe Institute INSCOM future remote viewing sessions, was the reference to Chicago. Today I discovered a reference connecting Chicago with crashing into a building, from the official 9/11 report: “At 9:00, Lee Hanson received a second call from his son Peter: It’s getting bad, Dad-A stewardess was stabbed-They seem to have knives and Mace-They said they have a bomb-It’s getting very bad on the plane-Passengers are throwing up and getting sick-The plane is making jerky movements-I don’t think the pilot is flying the plane-I think we are going down-I think they intend to go to Chicago or someplace and fly into a building-Don’t worry, Dad- If it happens, it’ll be very fast-My God, my God. The call ended abruptly. Lee Hanson had heard a woman scream just before it cut off. He turned on a television, and in her home so did Louise Sweeney. Both then saw the second aircraft hit the World Trade Center. At 9:03:11, United Airlines Flight 175 struck the South Tower of the World Trade Center.51 All on board, along with an unknown number of people in the tower, were killed instantly.” “mission” The 9/11 mission was to inflict as much damage as possible using aircraft as WMD. Specifically in the Washington, D.C. area the targets were the Pentagon, the Capitol Building, and the White House. The White House was considered to be a more difficult target. “crashing” Although all of the 911 aircraft crashed, Flight 93 failed to reach the intended target in Washington, D.C. and crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. “U.S. Capitol Building” The U.S. Capitol building is the assumed intended target of Flight 93 “flight plan” A general point, that the planes had properly registered flight plans, and were not rogue invaders “National Airport” Although this is likely overlay due to front loading, it should be noted that National Airport is in the Washington, D.C area. Identification of National Airport was provided by only one of the four sources. TIMELINE “DATE OF EVENT: The month of December, January or February. The most probable day is the 6, 16 or 26th of each month.” Mapping to 9/11 Events: Note: The timeline was likely seriously skewed by front loading, given the account of Paul Smith. Several interesting correlations can be made, however. [Comment added 8-25-2007: Inversion of images is commonly reported by remote viewers. It is possible that a 6 can be viewed as a 9, and vice versa. The original tasking instructions, given in Dec. of 1983, targeted the “next few months” according to Paul Smith.] “December, January, or February” The holiday season of 2001 is discussed in detail in the 9/11 Report, as Jarrah, Atta, and Shehhi all took foreign trips during this time period. This suggests that the dates given in the CIA document may have been focused on the departure and arrival of the terrorists. “January” 2001 January 2001 was a pivotal month for many of the 9/11 pilots. January appears 118 times in the 9/11 Commission Report, February appears 79 times, and December appears 100 times. For a quick comparison, March appears 94 times, April 79 times, June 410 times, July 431 times, August 168 times, and September, the month of the actual attacks, 376 times. We therefore attach no significance to the dates given by the remote viewers, apart from the above. The identified dates may have some significance for Jarrah, in January of 2001, perhaps related to his completion of Flight School and a trip to visit his father at the end of January. We have found no other possible significance and conclude that the dates given are not related to the 9/11 attack on Washington, D.C. 6th: May have possible significance, not directly related to the date of the attack 16th: May have possible significance, not directly related to the date of the attack 26th: May have possible significance, not directly related to the date of the attack [Note added on 8-25-2007: We suggest that the three number sixes reported above may have been nines. If that were true then the 9, 91, and 92 might be related to the date of 9/11/2001.] THE 9/11 AIRPLANES: “AIRCRAFT: small “Lear Jet type” aircraft blue and red in color, red predominating Tail number may include the following characters: A, N, Y, and the numbers 1 thru 7 most probably N, 2 and 7 Current location is believed to be along the Great Lakes, perhaps Chicago. Aircraft may have been purchased within the last 60 days in New Jersey or New York.” We suspect that there would have been confusion between the entire 9/11 event, where four planes were used as weapons, and the front loading that specified the Washington, D.C. area. There is a more serious problem with the time frame, as the request for a current location in 1983 would conflict with the actual event timeframe of September 2001. There are several errors resulting from temporal front loading of the remote viewers. Apart from dates and timelines, numbers and letters are generally considered to be among the most difficult targets. Here are the primitive elements: Small, Lear Jet type, blue and red (red predominating), tail number, A, N, Y, the numbers 1 through 7, N, 2, and 7, current location, Great Lakes, Chicago, aircraft, purchased, last 60 days, New Jersey, New York Mapping to 9/11 Events: “small” Original report of a plane crashing into the World Trade Center described the aircraft as a small, twin-engine plane. “Lear Jet type” Likely analytical overlay, perhaps confusion given the report of a small twin-engine commercial jet and the actual 767 and 757’s used in the attack. There is also this item mentioned in the 9/11 Commission Report: “A 1998 White House tabletop exercise chaired by Richard Clarke included a scenario in which a terrorist group loaded a Learjet with explosives and took off for a suicide mission to Washington. Military officials said they could scramble fighter jets from Langley Air Force Base to chase the aircraft, but they would need “executive” orders to shoot it down.” “blue and red” Blue and red are the predominant colors used in the detailing of both the American Airlines and the United Airlines planes. “red predominating” This also appears as analytical overlay, although red might be considered to stand out more than the blue against the silver metallic plane bodies. “Tail number,” “A, N, Y and “the numbers 1 through 7,” “N, 2, and 7” Identification of the actual tail number would have been the target. It does appear that there is a partial hit as the letter N is identified as one of the three most likely letters. This is exactly correct for all four planes. The actual tail numbers were: N612UA N334AA N591UA N644AA Note that the 3 digital tail numbers all fall between 1 – 7 with the exception of a single 9 in N591UA, the 757 flown by Jarrah. We assume that the inclusion of the number 7 is related to the Boeing 757 or 767 designation. We also note that the tail of the American Airlines planes features the distinctive “double A” logo and bird graphic, which resembles the letter Y. This appears to be a possible hit in most respects except for the number 9 in N591UA. “current location” This is immediately problematic given that there is temporal overlay. “Great Lakes” No apparent mapping. Flight 93 turned back towards Washington, D.C shortly before reaching the Great Lakes area. “Chicago” No apparent mapping. NOTE ADDED 10-20-2005: 9/11 and Chicago One of the items that bothered me about the CIA document that likely resulted from the 1983 Monroe Institute INSCOM future remote viewing sessions, was the reference to Chicago. Today I discovered a reference connecting Chicago with crashing into a building, from the official 9/11 report: “At 9:00, Lee Hanson received a second call from his son Peter: It’s getting bad, Dad-A stewardess was stabbed-They seem to have knives and Mace-They said they have a bomb-It’s getting very bad on the plane-Passengers are throwing up and getting sick-The plane is making jerky movements-I don’t think the pilot is flying the plane-I think we are going down-I think they intend to go to Chicago or someplace and fly into a building-Don’t worry, Dad- If it happens, it’ll be very fast-My God, my God. The call ended abruptly. Lee Hanson had heard a woman scream just before it cut off. He turned on a television, and in her home so did Louise Sweeney. Both then saw the second aircraft hit the World Trade Center. At 9:03:11, United Airlines Flight 175 struck the South Tower of the World Trade Center.51 All on board, along with an unknown number of people in the tower, were killed instantly.” “aircraft” The reference to the aircraft involved, as well as to the timeline, suggests that the viewers were front loaded with questions such as “Where or when was the aircraft purchased?” There is the suggestion that the viewers were being tasked along a line of inquiry that skewed the data. “purchased” The terrorists involved in the 9/11 plot did not purchase any airplanes, however they did purchase airplane tickets. The locations associated with the purchase are New York and New Jersey. “last 60 days” Once again there is a serious problem with temporal front loading. Perhaps this is related to the identification of the Chicago and Great Lakes region? “New Jersey” New Jersey plays a predominant role in the 9/11 events. “New York” New York plays a predominant role in the 9/11 events. 9/11 PILOTS “PILOT: not in the country as of 12 Dec 83 foreign, perhaps Iranian speaks English and perhaps French May enter the country through Canada on a French passport. Name may be or sound like Jerry, Gerard or Geraldo.” The identification of the pilot is the most interesting piece of information, apart from identification of the plot to use airplanes as weapons against government buildings in Washington, D.C. Generally it is our opinion that this information is mostly correct. The most important data point is the identification of the name of the pilot flying the mission against the U.S. Capitol Building. We note that of all of the names of the 9/11 pilots, the only potential match is Ziad Jarrah. We also note with great interest that Jarrah is the pilot of Flight 93, and that the target was considered to be either the White House or the U.S. Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. Here are the primitive elements: Pilot, country, 12 Dec 83, foreign, perhaps Iranian, speaks English, perhaps (speaks) French, enter country, Canada, French, passport, name, Jerry, Gerard, Geraldo Mapping to 9/11 events: “pilot” Four planes were used in the 9/11 attacks. The names of the pilots were Mohammed Atta (Flight 11), Hani Hanjour (Flight 77), Ziad Samir Jarrah (or Jarrahi)(Flight 93) and Marwan al Shehhi (Flight 175). Of these four, only Jarrah “sounds like” Jerry, Gerard or Geraldo. It should also be noted that none of the names of the other hijackers “sounds like” Jerry, Gerard or Geraldo. Jarrah piloted Flight 93, bound for Washington, D.C. The likely target was the U.S. Capitol Building, as there had been some discussion that the White House would be a difficult target. “country” This item is probably front loaded. It is likely that the viewers were asked “Is the terrorist pilot in the United States?” “12 DEC 83” This appears to be the front loaded timeframe of the original sessions “foreign” Jarrah a citizen of Lebanon, also lived for a time in Germany “perhaps Iranian” This may be related to a quote by one of the passengers on Flight 93. In the account by MSNBC at http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3067652/ “Jeremy Glick calls his wife, Lyz, in New York to say that three “Iranian looking” men, one with a red box strapped to his waist, have taken control of the plane and to call the authorities.” “speaks English” Jarrah spoke excellent English “perhaps (speaks) French” Some reports state that Jarrah spoke fluent French as well as English “passport” The terrorists all entered the United States using passports, in other words no one entered through illegal channels, although fraudulent information was used in some cases “name” Jarrah was the pilot identified with Flight 93, on a mission to crash into the United States Capitol Building. Jarrah may be interpreted to sound like Jerry (as in Jarrahi) Gerard (Jah – rard) or Geraldo. [1] “Reading the Enemy’s Mind” by Paul Smith, page 143. From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ] Public release date: 14-Aug-2007 Contact: Charlie Wallace charlie [dot] wallace [at] iop [dot] org Physicists discover inorganic dust with lifelike qualities Could extraterrestrial life be made of corkscrew-shaped particles of interstellar dust? Intriguing new evidence of life-like structures that form from inorganic substances in space are revealed today in the New Journal of Physics. The findings hint at the possibility that life beyond earth may not necessarily use carbon-based molecules as its building blocks. They also point to a possible new explanation for the origin of life on earth. Life on earth is organic. It is composed of organic molecules, which are simply the compounds of carbon, excluding carbonates and carbon dioxide. The idea that particles of inorganic dust may take on a life of their own is nothing short of alien, going beyond the silicon-based life forms favoured by some science fiction stories. Now, an international team has discovered that under the right conditions, particles of inorganic dust can become organised into helical structures. These structures can then interact with each other in ways that are usually associated with organic compounds and life itself. V.N. Tsytovich of the General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, in Moscow, working with colleagues there and at the Max- Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany and the University of Sydney, Australia, has studied the behaviour of complex mixtures of inorganic materials in a plasma. Plasma is essentially the fourth state of matter beyond solid, liquid and gas, in which electrons are torn from atoms leaving behind a miasma of charged particles. Until now, physicists assumed that there could be little organisation in such a cloud of particles. However, Tsytovich and his colleagues demonstrated, using a computer model of molecular dynamics, that particles in a plasma can undergo self-organization as electronic charges become separated and the plasma becomes polarized. This effect results in microscopic strands of solid particles that twist into corkscrew shapes, or helical structures. These helical strands are themselves electronically charged and are attracted to each other. Quite bizarrely, not only do these helical strands interact in a counterintuitive way in which like can attract like, but they also undergo changes that are normally associated with biological molecules, such as DNA and proteins, say the researchers. They can, for instance, divide, or bifurcate, to form two copies of the original structure. These new structures can also interact to induce changes in their neighbours and they can even evolve into yet more structures as less stable ones break down, leaving behind only the fittest structures in the plasma. So, could helical clusters formed from interstellar dust be somehow alive? “These complex, self-organized plasma structures exhibit all the necessary properties to qualify them as candidates for inorganic living matter,” says Tsytovich, “they are autonomous, they reproduce and they evolve”. He adds that the plasma conditions needed to form these helical structures are common in outer space. However, plasmas can also form under more down to earth conditions such as the point of a lightning strike. The researchers hint that perhaps an inorganic form of life emerged on the primordial earth, which then acted as the template for the more familiar organic molecules we know today. http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1367-2630/9/8/263/njp7_8_263.html New J. Phys. 9 (2007) 263 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/9/8/263 PII: S1367-2630(07)48657-8 From plasma crystals and helical structures towards inorganic living matter V N Tsytovich1,5, G E Morfill2, V E Fortov3, N G Gusein-Zade1, B A Klumov2 and S V Vladimirov4 1 General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Vavilova str. 38, Moscow, 119991, Russia 2 Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, 85740 Garching, Germany 3 Insitute of Physics of Extremal State of Matter, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia 4 School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia 5 Author to whom any correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: tsyto [at] mpe [dot] mpg [dot] de Received 19 April 2007 Published 14 August 2007 Abstract. Complex plasmas may naturally self-organize themselves into stable interacting helical structures that exhibit features normally attributed to organic living matter. The self-organization is based on non-trivial physical mechanisms of plasma interactions involving over- screening of plasma polarization. As a result, each helical string composed of solid microparticles is topologically and dynamically controlled by plasma fluxes leading to particle charging and over- screening, the latter providing attraction even among helical strings of the same charge sign. These interacting complex structures exhibit thermodynamic and evolutionary features thought to be peculiar only to living matter such as bifurcations that serve as memory marks’, self- duplication, metabolic rates in a thermodynamically open system, and non-Hamiltonian dynamics. We examine the salient features of this new complex state of soft matter’ in light of the autonomy, evolution, progenity and autopoiesis principles used to define life. It is concluded that complex self-organized plasma structures exhibit all the necessary properties to qualify them as candidates for inorganic living matter that may exist in space provided certain conditions allow them to evolve naturally. Contents * 1. Introduction * 2. Plasma over-screening and plasma fluxes * 3. Helical dust structures * 4. Replication of helical dust structures * Acknowledgment * Appendix o A.1. Methods used for description of plasma crystal o A.2. Numerical simulation methods * References 1. Introduction A universal definition of life [1] relates it to autonomy and open- ended evolution [2], i.e. to autonomous systems with open-ended evolution/self-organization capacities. Thus a number of features follow: some energy transduction apparatus (to ensure energy current/ flow); a permeable active boundary (membrane); two types of functionally interdependent macromolecular components (catalysts and records)–in order to articulate a genotype-phenotype’ decoupling allowing for an open-ended increase in the complexity of the individual agents (individual and collective’ evolution) [3]. The energy transduction system is necessary to feed’ the structure; the boundary as well as a property called autopoiesis’ (which is a fundamental complementarity between the structure and function [4, 5]) are necessary to sustain organized states of dissipative structures stable for a long period of time. To maintain a living organic state, it is also necessary to process nutrients into the required biochemical tools and structures through metabolism which in mathematical terms can be seen as a mapping f that transforms one metabolic configuration into another (and is invertible) f(f) = f; i.e. it is a function that acts on an instance of itself to produce another instance of itself [6, 7]. Finally, memory and reproduction of organic life are based on the properties of DNA which are negatively charged macromolecules exhibiting an important property of replication [8]. Self-organization of any structure needs energy sources and sinks in order to decrease the entropy locally. Dissipation usually serves as a sink, while external sources (such as radiation of the Sun for organic life) provide the energy input. Furthermore, memory and reproduction are necessary for a self-organizing dissipative structure to form a living material’. The well known problem in explaining the origin of life is that the complexity of living creatures is so high that the time necessary to form the simplest organic living structure is too large compared to the age of the Earth. Similarly, the age of the Universe is also not sufficient for organic life to be created in a distant environment (similar to that on the Earth) and then transferred to the Earth. Can faster evolution rates be achieved for non-organic structures, in particular, in space consisting mostly of plasmas and dust grains, i.e. of natural components spread almost everywhere in the Universe? If yes, then the question to address is: are the above necessary requirements of self-organization into a kind of a living creature’ present in plasmas containing macro-particles such as dust grains? Here, we discuss new aspects of the physics of dust self-organization that can proceed very fast and present an explanation of the grain condensation into highly organized structures first observed as plasma crystals in [9, 10]. We stress that, previously, important features of these structures were not clearly related to their peculiar physics such as plasma fluxes on to grain surfaces, sharp structural boundaries, and bifurcations in particle arrangements that can serve as memory marks and help reproduction. The plasma fluxes strongly influence interactions of dust particles, sustain the boundaries, and realize the energy transduction. We discuss experiments which indicate the natural existence of the memory marks in helical dust structures, similar to DNA, and natural mechanisms of the helical dust structure reproduction. 2. Plasma over-screening and plasma fluxes An important feature of inorganic structures is the presence of memory marks’ existing as rigid marks’ in common crystal systems. In contrast, observations of crystals formed by dust in a plasma (plasma crystals) [9, 10] demonstrate no rigid marks because of unusual properties of plasma crystals such as large coupling constant, low temperature of phase transition, and large separation of grains. These puzzling properties can be resolved by employing the over-screening of grain fields, the effect that was clearly realized only recently. The over-screening appears in the presence of plasma fluxes on to the grain surfaces [11]-[13]. As a result, an attraction well appears as indicated schematically in figure 1. This potential well is usually shallow and located at a distance much larger than the Debye screening length λD (an example shown in figure 1 uses parameters typical for plasma crystal experiments [9, 10]). A shallow potential well explains the large coupling constant as well as the low temperature of phase transitions. By extracting the pure Coulomb potential of interaction and introducing the screening factor ψ, the grain interaction potential is V = Zd2e2ψ/r (Zd is the grain charge in units of electron charge -e). Due to over-screening, the value of ψ changes its sign at large distances as indicated in figure 1. At the potential well minimum, the screening factor ψmin is negative. The value |ψmin| determines the temperature of the associated phase transition Td and also characterizes the distance rd = rd(|ψmin|) of the well minimum (in the simplest case, r_{\rm d}\approx 1/\sqrt{\vert\psi_{\rm min} \vert} ). If condensation of grains (or grain pairing) occurs, the grains will be localized at the minimum of the attraction well, rd. The corresponding criterion can be expressed through the coupling constant Γ (which is the ratio of the potential energy of the grain interaction to their kinetic energy) as Γ > Γcr≡Zd2e2/rdTd = 1/|ψmin|. Thus, |ψmin| determines values of the inter-grain distance, the temperature of transition, and the coupling constant. For a shallow attractive well, |ψmin| ll 1 and Γ gg 1. This qualitatively explains thelarge value of Γ observed in experiments. The model predicts Γcr to be of the order of the difference between the maximum grain interaction and the temperature of transition (about 3-4 orders of magnitude). As a result, the concept of plasma over-screening agrees well [12, 13] with major experimental observations [9, 10]. It also applies for description of dust helical structures and leads to the possibility of unusual memory marks’ impossible in common crystals. Figure 1 Figure 1. Sketch of the screening factor ψ of the grain interaction potential. The grain interaction energy V can be described in units of pure (not screened) Coulomb interactions of grains V = ψ(Zd2e2/r) as a function of the distance between the grains in units of the linear Debye screening length. The distance rd displays the position of the minimum of the attraction well and has a typical experimental value of 200 μm [9, 10]. This corresponds to the inter-grain distances observed during the phase transition to the plasma crystal state. The value of | ψmin| varies between 10-2 and 10-4 for different models and different experiments. This value is in accordance with the ratio of the interaction at the minimum of the potential well and the maximum interaction energy corresponding to ψ = 1, respectively. The value of coupling constant Γ = 1/|ψmin| ranges from 102 up to 104 in accordance with observations. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate that a random distribution of grains, interacting via the potential shown in figure 1 with a shallow attractive well |ψmin|approx10-3 and experiencing background friction and stochastic kicks, forms spherical grain crystals. In figure 2, we show results of these simulations. Application of this model is of double importance. Firstly, we resolve the problems of laboratory observations, and secondly, we predict the possible existence of large plasma poly-crystals in space–a new state of matter which is unexplored so far. Here, an important point for space applications is that the attraction potential well is shallow and therefore even weak dissipation can cause the grain capture in the well. Figure 2 Figure 2. Molecular dynamics simulations of dusty cloud evolution. The figure shows snapshots of the velocity field and grain positions: (a) corresponds to the initial state (t = 0) of the cloud, (b) t = 0.3 s and (c) t = 3 s, respectively. The velocity magnitude is color-coded. It rises from blue to red by a factor of five. Initially, 103μ m-size grains were distributed randomly over the sphere of radius about rd (see figure 1) and the pair interactions between grains are described by the potential shown in figure 1. Grain motions are damped by friction (to model viscosity of plasma neutral component) and stochastically accelerated by Langevin force (to model plasma fluctuations). The simulations reveal formation of a stable self- confined spherical structure in time. Local order analysis shows that some grains (about a few percents of their total number) have hcp lattice type, while the majority of grains are in a liquid state. Physically, the attraction appears due to the electrostatic self- energy of grains, supported by plasma fluxes continuously absorbed by the grains. The fluxes are necessary to sustain the grain charges and appear almost immediately as soon as a particle is embedded in the plasma. The self-energy of grains is much larger than their kinetic and potential energies so that its (even small) changes can strongly influence grain interactions. It was first shown in [11] that for a fixed source of plasma fluxes, the electrostatic energy of two grains decreases when they approach each other. As the self-energy is supported by continuous plasma fluxes, work has to be done to maintain them and this can almost compensate the associated changes of self- energy. Nevertheless, a full compensation does not occur if the distance between the grains is large. At present it is understood [12, 13] that this phenomenon is a general feature of grain interactions in a plasma. The fluxes on grains depend on the electrostatic polarization charges of the grains and the polarization charges depend on the fluxes and create an accumulation of excess plasma charges between the grains. These plasma charges exhibit the sign opposite to that of likely charged interacting grains and therefore cause the attraction. The appearance of grain attraction is a general phenomenon which converts the grain containing matter into a new unusual state. Effects of plasma fluxes lead to gravitation-like instabilities with an effective gravitational constant GeffapproxZd2e2|ψminmd2. For a dust size aapprox3 μm, a mass density of the dust material of 2g cm-2, Zdapprox103 and |ψmin|approx10-4, the effective gravitational constant Geff is approximately 6×104 cgs which is 1012 times larger than the usual gravitational constant G = 6.7×10-8 cqs. The effective Jeans length of this instability has the size of order rd. The effective gravity affects only dust grains and therefore plasmas can be influenced by this attraction only through their interactions with the grains. The new effective instability of a dusty plasma leads to structurization of dust clouds similar to the effects caused by the usual gravitational instability. Dust structures self-organized in the plasma environment have sharp boundaries such that they are isolated from each other by regions without grains (dust voids). This effect, observed in the laboratory as well as in micro-gravity experiments onboard the ISS [14], is well explained theoretically [15, 16]. The structures and crystals should self-generate additional confining forces due to the plasma fluxes directed into the structures, i.e. these structures serve as sinks of plasmas and the ram pressure of the plasma fluxes acts on the structures to make them self-organized, self-confined and dissipative. This self-contraction should be added to the the grain pairing; their joint effect leads to formation of dust helical structures. 3. Helical dust structures Helical dust structures (an example is given in figure 3(a)), can be considered as equally separated flat structures with constant rotation angle between the planes (figure 3(b)). Their properties are of special interest for the problems discussed here. Figure 3(a) illustrates double helical dust structures similar to DNA. Molecular dynamics simulations of interacting grains with an additional gas friction show that any cylindrically symmetric grain distribution converts in time into a stable self-confined helical structure [17]. These specific stable dust structures form due to the grain pairing attraction as well as due to the external plasma flux created by the whole structures (and the anticipated ram pressure). In experiments in gas discharges with a longitudinal external electric field forming striations [18, 19], modulated cylindrical grain crystals were observed. As predicted by numerical simulations [17], these cylindrical crystals convert into helical structures with fewer grains per unit length. According to numerical experiments, highly symmetric spherical dust structures can be formed only when the spherical symmetry is externally supported (e.g. when all initial conditions are spherically symmetric). In the other cases, even a small asymmetry leads to formation of cylindrically symmetric and/or helical structures. In nature, some asymmetry always exists and therefore formation of helical structures is quite probable. First observations of dust self-confined moving helical structures were done in dc cryogenic gas discharges [20]. The particle traces, moving in a self- organized way, are shown in figure 4. Similar ion helical structures were also observed in laser cooling traps [21]. Figure 3 Figure 3. (a) and (b) Sketch of helical double winding grain structures similar to DNA. (c) Bifurcations in (phi,D/Δ)–plane of structures confined by external potential Kr2/2; phi is the rotational angle in each plane of the helical structure; D is the diameter of the helical structure and Δ is the spatial separation of the planes of the helical structure; the line K = 0 corresponds to self-organized stable structures without external confinement K = 0 but with the presence of dust attraction [17]. Figure 4 Figure 4. (a) Traces of helical structures on the walls of the chamber observed in dc cryogenic plasmas at Ti = 2.7 K. The traces of conical helical structure are shown black on the green background of discharge at several distances from the top of it; x = 0 mm–the head’ of the structure, x = 3 mm–the middle of the structure and 5 mm–the end of the structure. The whole structure looks like a worm’, hollow inside (having a dust void inside) and moving on cylindrical surfaces around the axis of discharge. (b) Sketch of the central part of the helical structure of the worm’ deduced from the traces left of the structure on the wall of the discharge chamber, the grains are located at the surfaces of a few cylinders inside each other [20]. Important features of dust helical structures observed in simulations [17] and indicated by analytical investigation of stability of helical structures and mode oscillations is the existence of numerous bifurcations in the dependence of the helical winding angle upon the diameter of the structure. An example of this helical structure behavior is demonstrated schematically in figure 3(c). Bifurcations in helical structures appear naturally and correspond to the critical conditions when any slight change in the helical structure diameter D results in a sudden change of the helical winding. We note that various helical structures with different bifurcations can be obtained in experiments using current cylindrical discharge plasma crystals by continuously decreasing the number of grains injected into the system. Numerical investigations show a universal character of these bifurcations. The helical structures have the unique property of bifurcations which can serve as memory marks. With increasing of diameter of the structure suddenly the rotational angle of the structure is changed. This is illustrated by figure 3(c) which shows that an increase of diameter of the structure at certain radius there appears possibility of presence of two equilibrium vales of the rotational angle (the upper thick dashed line and the lower solid line) instead of one possible equilibrium value for the rotational angle before bifurcation (the upper thick line). After the bifurcation the solid thick dashed line represents an unstable branch and the solid lower line represents a stable branch. Thus the rotational angle at some critical radius is changing abruptly. These bifurcations can serve as possible memory marks for the structures. The helical crystals can then store this information. 4. Replication of helical dust structures Dust convection and dust vortex formation outside the structure is another natural phenomenon observed in laboratory experiments and in experiments onboard the ISS [14]-[16]. The physics of dust vortex formation is related to the grain charge inhomogeneity and its dependence on surrounding plasma parameters. The gradients of grain charges are supported self-consistently by the structure, and they are the reason for the non-potential character of the electrostatic force – eZdE acting on the grains and causing the vortex formation. Dust convection was observed in experiments on cylindrical dust crystals formed in modulated gas discharges [18] (figure 5(a)) and was obtained in numerical modeling [19] (figure 5(b)). It is important that the helical crystals modulated in their radius are always surrounded by self-created dust convection cells. The helical dust structures, after they are formed, resemble features similar to those of DNA. In particular, they can transfer information from one helical structure to another via the dust convective cells surrounding any bifurcation of the helical structure. A rough sketch of a possible model of the helical grain structure reproduction is shown in figure 5(c). Figure 5 Figure 5. (a) The observed grain convection surrounding the cylindrical grain crystal. Different colors correspond to different grain velocities [18], The velocities vary from about 0.4 cm s-1 (blue) up to 1.5 cm s-1 (red). (b) The dust convection obtained in numerical simulations [19]. (c) Sketch of the model for helical structure duplication (reproduction). See details in the text. Let us discuss some details about possible sequences of events during the reproduction. The abrupt change of the rotational angle will create an inhomogeneity in random halo dust grains surrounding the helical structure with grain charge gradient not collinear to the electric field and will create a force forming pair of toroidal vortices around the structure. For a negatively charged structure the upper toroidal vortex has a clockwise rotation while the lower has an anti-clockwise rotation. If another (second) helical structure has no bifurcation and moves close to that with bifurcation the vortices start to be created in this structure. Finally these vortices create the bifurcation in the second structure and transfer the information from the first structure to the other one. The evolution of dust structures in the presence of plasma fluxes is related to the characteristic frequency of dust motions. In first instance, this can be estimated by the dust plasma frequency ωpd~(Zd2e2/mdrd3)1/2, where md is the mass of a dust particle. We note that characteristics of the potential well (located at rd) and therefore the physics of plasma fluxes enter this expression via rd and Zd. This consideration destroys one of the current myths in astrophysics, namely, that the grain interaction is vanishing for distances larger than the linear Debye screening radius. This is obvious since inside the dust Jeans length (where the interactions are still effective) many grains are present for most dust clouds in space. For most situations, the plasma dust frequency of a few (or even a fraction of) Hz leads to times extremely short compared to typical astrophysical times. If grain structures exist in space, they have collective modes of oscillations which in principle can be detected as modulations of the infrared emission of different cosmic sources. The effective Jeans size of dust clumping is in the range that can be detected by the Spitzer telescope in observation of (the closest to the Earth) formations of dust clouds around stars and star outbursts preceding the formation of new planetary systems. The program to measure low frequency regular modulations from dust clouds with the effective structure sizes caused by the dust attraction instability can be included in, e.g. the Spitzer telescope project. Our analysis shows that if helical dust structures are formed in space, they can have bifurcations as memory marks and duplicate each other, and they would reveal a faster evolution rate by competing for food’ (surrounding plasma fluxes). These structures can have all necessary features to form inorganic life’. This should be taken into account for formulation of a new SETI-like program based not only on astrophysical observations but also on planned new laboratory experiments, including those on the ISS. In the case of the success of such a program one should be faced with the possibility of resolving the low rate of evolution of organic life by investigating the possibility that the inorganic life invents’ the organic life. Acknowledgment This work was partially supported by the Australian Research Council. Appendix A.1. Methods used for description of plasma crystal Special methods have been developed to treat the plasma over-screening for present experiments with large grain charges which cause the screening to be nonlinear at short distances between the grains [9, 10]. The full nonlinear treatment of the screening polarization charges and plasma fluxes is rather complicated [12]. The progress was achieved on the basis of physical arguments showing that close to the grains the influence of fluxes on polarization is small. Neglecting the effect of fluxes the nonlinear screening was solved in [13] by using the approach of [22]. Far from the grain the coupling of fluxes and polarization charges became important but the polarization charge became small and one can use the linear approach to find the coupling. The matching method at the distances where the nonlinearity starts to be weak have been applied successfully [13] to describe the nonlinear over-screening. A.2. Numerical simulation methods The cooperative behavior of charged grains embedded in a plasma is due to electrostatic coupling between the charged particles, which are believed to interact via a potential which has both a repulsive and an attractive short-range component. 3D molecular dynamics simulations including electrostatic collisions between grains, neutral drag and stochastic Langevin force were performed to simulate the evolution of a dusty cloud. Free boundary conditions were used. To analyze the local order of grains, we used the bond order parameter method [23]. References [1] Schrödinger E 1944 What is Life? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) chapter 7 [2] Ruiz-Mirazo K, Pereto J and Morenz A 2004 Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 34 323-46 (Amsterdam: Springer) CrossRef Link | PubMed Abstract | Order from Infotrieve [3] Rowe G W 1997 Theoretical Models in Biology–The Origin of Life, the Immune System and the Brain (Oxford: Oxford Science Publishing) [4] Maturana M R and Varela F J 1991 Autopoiesis and Cognition–The Realization of the Living (Berlin: Springer) [5] Minger J 1995 Self-producing Systems, Implications and Autopoesis (New York: Plenum) [6] Rosen R 1958 A relational theory of biological systems Bull. Math. Biophys. 20 245-341 CrossRef Link | Order from Infotrieve [7] Rosen R 1999 Essay on Life Itself (New York: Columbia University Press) [8] Watson J and Crick F 1953 Genetic Implications of the structures of DNA Nature 171 964-7 CrossRef Link | PubMed Abstract | Order from Infotrieve [9] Thomas H M and Morfill G E 1996 Melting dynamics of a plasma crystal Nature 379 806-9 CrossRef Link | Inspec Abstract | Order from Infotrieve [10] Fortov V E et al 1996 Phys. Let. A 219 89-94 CrossRef Link | Inspec Abstract | Order from Infotrieve [11] Tsytovich V N 1994 Attraction of equally charged dust grains and formation of new type of matter Comment. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 15 349 Inspec Abstract | Order from Infotrieve [12] Tsytovich V N and Morfill G 2004 Non-linear collective phenomena in dusty plasmas Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 46 B527-39 IOP Article [13] Tsytovich V 2006 New paradigm for plasma crystal formation J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 4501-9 IOP Article [14] Nevedov A P et al 2003 PKE-Nefedov: plasma crystal experiments on the International Space Station New J. Phys. 5 33 IOP Article [15] Goree J et al 1999 Theory of dust voids in plasmas Phys. Rev. E 59 7055-67 CrossRef Link | Inspec Abstract | Order from Infotrieve [16] Tsytovich V N et al 2003 Collision-dominated dust sheaths and voids –observations in micro-gravity experiments and numerical investigation of the force balance relations New J. Phys. 5 66 IOP Article [17] Tsytovich V N, Gusein-zade N and Morfill G E 2004 Dust-dust interactions and for mation of helical dust structures IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 32 637-52 CrossRef Link | Inspec Abstract | Order from Infotrieve [18] Vasiliev M M, Antipov S N and Petrov O F 2006 Large-scale vortices in dc glow discharge dusty plasmas J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 4539-43 IOP Article [19] Tsytovich V N et al 2006 Theory of dust self-organized convection in cylindrical discharges Phys. Plasmas 13 032306 CrossRef Link | Inspec Abstract | Order from Infotrieve [20] Antipov S A et al 2005 Dust plasma structures in cryogenic dc discharges dusty New Vistas in Dusty Plasmas 799 125-8 (New York: AIP) Order from Infotrieve [21] Birkl G, Kassner S and Walter H 1992 Multiple-shell structures of laser-cooled MG-24( + ) ions in a quadrupole storage ring Nature 357 310-3 CrossRef Link | Inspec Abstract | Order from Infotrieve [22] Al’pert Y, Gurevich A and Pitaevsky L 1965 Space Physics with Artificial Sattelites (New York: Consultants Bureau) [23] Steinhardt P J, Nelson D R and Ronchetti M 1983 Phys. Rev. B 28 784-805 CrossRef Link | Inspec Abstract | Order from Infotrieve http://www.iop.org/EJ/search_author?query2=V%20N%20Tsytovich&searchfield2=authors&journaltype=all&datetype=all&sort=date_cover&submit=1 E-mail: tsyto [at] mpe [dot] mpg [dot] de . Dr. Namik G Gusein-zade E-mail: namik [at] fpl [dot] gpi [dot] ru . Director: Prof. Dr. Gregor E. Morfill E-mail: gem [at] mpe [dot] mpg [dot] de . http://www.iop.org/EJ/search_author?query2=B%20A%20Klumov&searchfield2=authors&journaltype=all&datetype=all&sort=date_cover&submit=1 Email: klumov [at] cips [dot] mpg [dot] de . Vladimir E. Fortov e-mail: fortov [at] ficp [dot] ac [dot] ru . http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/~vladimi/ SERGEY V. VLADIMIROV Email: S [dot] Vladimirov [at] physics [dot] usyd [dot] edu [dot] au RE: posted by [ jstark ] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dust_(His_Dark_Materials) From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ] OR FEEDING ON DISSIPATING ENERGY? http://news.bostonherald.com/offBeat/view.bg?articleid=1013393&format=text Cat predicts deaths of nursing home residents Wednesday, July 25, 2007 PROVIDENCE, R.I. – Oscar the cat seems to have an uncanny knack for predicting when nursing home patients are going to die, by curling up next to them during their final hours. His accuracy, observed in 25 cases, has led the staff to call family members once he has chosen someone. It usually means they have less than four hours to live. “He doesn’t make too many mistakes. He seems to understand when patients are about to die,” said Dr. David Dosa in an interview. He describes the phenomenon in a poignant essay in Thursday’s issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. “Many family members take some solace from it. They appreciate the companionship that the cat provides for their dying loved one,” said Dosa, a geriatrician and assistant professor of medicine at Brown University. The 2-year-old feline was adopted as a kitten and grew up in a third-floor dementia unit at the Steere House Nursing and Rehabilitation Center. The facility treats people with Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease and other illnesses. After about six months, the staff noticed Oscar would make his own rounds, just like the doctors and nurses. He’d sniff and observe patients, then sit beside people who would wind up dying in a few hours. Dosa said Oscar seems to take his work seriously and is generally aloof. “This is not a cat that’s friendly to people,” he said. Oscar is better at predicting death than the people who work there, said Dr. Joan Teno of Brown University, who treats patients at the nursing home and is an expert on care for the terminally ill She was convinced of Oscar’s talent when he made his 13th correct call. While observing one patient, Teno said she noticed the woman wasn’t eating, was breathing with difficulty and that her legs had a bluish tinge, signs that often mean death is near. Oscar wouldn’t stay inside the room though, so Teno thought his streak was broken. Instead, it turned out the doctor’s prediction was roughly 10 hours too early. Sure enough, during the patient’s final two hours, nurses told Teno that Oscar joined the woman at her bedside. Doctors say most of the people who get a visit from the sweet- faced, gray-and-white cat are so ill they probably don’t know he’s there, so patients aren’t aware he’s a harbinger of death. Most families are grateful for the advanced warning, although one wanted Oscar out of the room while a family member died. When Oscar is put outside, he paces and meows his displeasure. No one’s certain if Oscar’s behavior is scientifically significant or points to a cause. Teno wonders if the cat notices telltale scents or reads something into the behavior of the nurses who raised him. Nicholas Dodman, who directs an animal behavioral clinic at the Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine and has read Dosa’s article, said the only way to know is to carefully document how Oscar divides his time between the living and dying. If Oscar really is a furry grim reaper, it’s also possible his behavior could be driven by self-centered pleasures like a heated blanket placed on a dying person, Dodman said. Nursing home staffers aren’t concerned with explaining Oscar, so long as he gives families a better chance at saying goodbye to the dying. Oscar recently received a wall plaque publicly commending his “compassionate hospice care.” http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/357/4/328 Volume 357:328-329 July 26, 2007 A Day in the Life of Oscar the Cat David M. Dosa, M.D., M.P.H. Oscar the Cat awakens from his nap, opening a single eye to survey his kingdom. From atop the desk in the doctor’s charting area, the cat peers down the two wings of the nursing home’s advanced dementia unit. All quiet on the western and eastern fronts. Slowly, he rises and extravagantly stretches his 2-year-old frame, first backward and then forward. He sits up and considers his next move. In the distance, a resident approaches. It is Mrs. P., who has been living on the dementia unit’s third floor for 3 years now. She has long forgotten her family, even though they visit her almost daily. Moderately disheveled after eating her lunch, half of which she now wears on her shirt, Mrs. P. is taking one of her many aimless strolls to nowhere. She glides toward Oscar, pushing her walker and muttering to herself with complete disregard for her surroundings. Perturbed, Oscar watches her carefully and, as she walks by, lets out a gentle hiss, a rattlesnake-like warning that says “leave me alone.” She passes him without a glance and continues down the hallway. Oscar is relieved. It is not yet Mrs. P.’s time, and he wants nothing to do with her. Oscar jumps down off the desk, relieved to be once more alone and in control of his domain. He takes a few moments to drink from his water bowl and grab a quick bite. Satisfied, he enjoys another stretch and sets out on his rounds. Oscar decides to head down the west wing first, along the way sidestepping Mr. S., who is slumped over on a couch in the hallway. With lips slightly pursed, he snores peacefully – perhaps blissfully unaware of where he is now living. Oscar continues down the hallway until he reaches its end and Room 310. The door is closed, so Oscar sits and waits. He has important business here. Twenty-five minutes later, the door finally opens, and out walks a nurse’s aide carrying dirty linens. “Hello, Oscar,” she says. “Are you going inside?” Oscar lets her pass, then makes his way into the room, where there are two people. Lying in a corner bed and facing the wall, Mrs. T. is asleep in a fetal position. Her body is thin and wasted from the breast cancer that has been eating away at her organs. She is mildly jaundiced and has not spoken in several days. Sitting next to her is her daughter, who glances up from her novel to warmly greet the visitor. “Hello, Oscar. How are you today?” Oscar takes no notice of the woman and leaps up onto the bed. He surveys Mrs. T. She is clearly in the terminal phase of illness, and her breathing is labored. Oscar’s examination is interrupted by a nurse, who walks in to ask the daughter whether Mrs. T. is uncomfortable and needs more morphine. The daughter shakes her head, and the nurse retreats. Oscar returns to his work. He sniffs the air, gives Mrs. T. one final look, then jumps off the bed and quickly leaves the room. Not today. Making his way back up the hallway, Oscar arrives at Room 313. The door is open, and he proceeds inside. Mrs. K. is resting peacefully in her bed, her breathing steady but shallow. She is surrounded by photographs of her grandchildren and one from her wedding day. Despite these keepsakes, she is alone. Oscar jumps onto her bed and again sniffs the air. He pauses to consider the situation, and then turns around twice before curling up beside Mrs. K. One hour passes. Oscar waits. A nurse walks into the room to check on her patient. She pauses to note Oscar’s presence. Concerned, she hurriedly leaves the room and returns to her desk. She grabs Mrs. K.’s chart off the medical-records rack and begins to make phone calls. Within a half hour the family starts to arrive. Chairs are brought into the room, where the relatives begin their vigil. The priest is called to deliver last rites. And still, Oscar has not budged, instead purring and gently nuzzling Mrs. K. A young grandson asks his mother, “What is the cat doing here?” The mother, fighting back tears, tells him, “He is here to help Grandma get to heaven.” Thirty minutes later, Mrs. K. takes her last earthly breath. With this, Oscar sits up, looks around, then departs the room so quietly that the grieving family barely notices. On his way back to the charting area, Oscar passes a plaque mounted on the wall. On it is engraved a commendation from a local hospice agency: “For his compassionate hospice care, this plaque is awarded to Oscar the Cat.” Oscar takes a quick drink of water and returns to his desk to curl up for a long rest. His day’s work is done. There will be no more deaths today, not in Room 310 or in any other room for that matter. After all, no one dies on the third floor unless Oscar pays a visit and stays awhile. Note: Since he was adopted by staff members as a kitten, Oscar the Cat has had an uncanny ability to predict when residents are about to die. Thus far, he has presided over the deaths of more than 25 residents on the third floor of Steere House Nursing and Rehabilitation Center in Providence, Rhode Island. His mere presence at the bedside is viewed by physicians and nursing home staff as an almost absolute indicator of impending death, allowing staff members to adequately notify families. Oscar has also provided companionship to those who would otherwise have died alone. For his work, he is highly regarded by the physicians and staff at Steere House and by the families of the residents whom he serves. {Source Information : Dr. Dosa is a geriatrician at Rhode Island Hospital and an assistant professor of medicine at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University – both in Providence.} From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony_Collapse_Disorder http://www.ento.psu.edu/MAAREC/pressReleases/ColonyCollapseDisorderWG.html http://news.independent.co.uk/environment/wildlife/article2314202.ece Species Under Threat Across America, millions of honey bees are abandoning their hives and flying off to die, leaving beekeepers facing ruin and US agriculture under threat. And to date, no one knows why. BY Michael McCarthy It has echoes of a murder mystery in polite society. There could hardly be a more sedate and unruffled world than beekeeping, but the beekeepers of the United States have suddenly encountered affliction, calamity and death on a massive scale. And they have not got a clue why it is happening. Across the country, from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific, honey bee colonies have started to die off, abruptly and decisively. Millions of bees are abandoning their hives and flying off to die (they cannot survive as a colony without the queen, who is always left behind). Some beekeepers, especially those with big portable apiaries, or bee farms, which are used for large-scale pollination of fruit and vegetable crops, are facing commercial ruin – and there is a growing threat that America’s agriculture may be struck a mortal blow by the loss of the pollinators. Yet scientists investigating the problem have no idea what is causing it. The phenomenon is recent, dating back to autumn, when beekeepers along the east coast of the US started to notice the die-offs. It was given the name of fall dwindle disease, but now it has been renamed to reflect better its dramatic nature, and is known as colony collapse disorder. It is swift in its effect. Over the course of a week the majority of the bees in an affected colony will flee the hive and disappear, going off to die elsewhere. The few remaining insects are then found to be enormously diseased – they have a “tremendous pathogen load”, the scientists say. But why? No one yet knows. The condition has been recorded in at least 24 states. It is having a major effect on the mobile apiaries which are transported across the US to pollinate large-scale crops, such as oranges in Florida or almonds in California. Some have lost up to 90 per cent of their bees. A reliable estimate of the true extent of the problem will not be possible for another month or so, until winter comes to an end and the hibernating bee colonies in the northern American states wake up. But scientists are very worried, not least because, as there is no obvious cause for the disease as yet, there is no way of tackling it. “We are extremely alarmed,” said Diana Cox-Foster, the professor of Entomology at Penn States University and one of the leading members of a specially convened colony-collapse disorder working group. “It is one of the most alarming insect diseases ever to hit the US and it has the potential to devastate the US beekeeping industry. In some ways it may be to the insect world what foot-and-mouth disease was to livestock in England.” Most of the pollination for more than 90 commercial crops grown throughout the United States is provided byApis mellifera, the honey bee, and the value from the pollination to agricultural output in the country is estimated at$14.6bn (£8bn) annually. Growers rent about
1.5 million colonies each year to pollinate crops – a colony usually
being the group of bees in a hive.

California’s almond crop, which is the biggest in the world,
stretching over more than half a million acres over the state’s
central valley, now draws more than half of the mobile bee colonies in
America at pollinating time – which is now. Some big commercial
beekeeping operations which have been hit hard by the current disease
have had to import millions of bees from Australia to enable the
almond trees to be pollinated.

Some of these mobile apiaries have been losing 60 or 70 per cent of
their insects, or even more. “A honey producer in Pennsylvania doing
local pollination, Larry Curtis, has gone from 1,000 bee colonies to
fewer than eight,” said Professor Cox-Foster. The disease showed a
completely new set of symptoms, “which does not seem to match anything
in the literature”, said the entomologist.

One was that the bees left the hive and flew away to die elsewhere,
over about a week. Another was that the few bees left inside the hive
were carrying “a tremendous number of pathogens” – virtually every
known bee virus could be detected in the insects, she said, and some
bees were carrying five or six viruses at a time, as well as fungal
infections. Because of this it was assumed that the bees’ immune
systems were being suppressed in some way.

Professor Cox-Foster went on: “And another unusual symptom that we’re
are seeing, which makes this very different, is that normally when a
bee colony gets weak and its numbers are decreasing, other
neighbouring bees will come and steal the resources – they will take
away the honey and the pollen.

“Other insects like to take advantage too, such as the wax moth or the
hive beetle. But none of this is happening. These insects are not
coming in.

“This suggests that there is something toxic in the colony itself
which is repelling them.”

The scientists involved in the working group were surveying the dead
colonies but did not think the cause of the deaths was anything
brought in by beekeepers, such as pesticides, she said.

Another of the researchers studying the collapses, Dennis van
Engelsdorp, a bee specialist with the State of Pennsylvania, said it
was still difficult to gauge their full extent. It was possible that
the bees were fleeing the colonies because they sensed they themselves
were diseased or affected in some way, he said. This behaviour has
been recorded in other social insects, such as ants.

The introduction of the parasitic bee mite Varroa in 1987 and the
invasion of the Africanised honey bee in 1990 have threatened honey
bee colonies in the US and in other parts of the world, but although
serious, they were easily comprehensible; colony collapse disorder is
a deep mystery.

One theory is that the bees may be suffering from stress as beekeepers
increasingly transport them around the country, the hives stacked on
top of each other on the backs of trucks, to carry out pollination
contracts in orchard after orchard, in different states.

Tens of billions of bees are now involved in this “migratory”
pollination. An operator might go from pollinating oranges in Florida,
to apples in Pennsylvania, to blueberries in Maine, then back to
Massachusetts to pollinate cranberries.

The business is so big that pollination is replacing honey-making as
the main money earner at the top end of the beekeeping market, not
least because in recent years the US has been flooded with cheap honey
imports, mainly from Argentina and China.

A typical bee colony, which might be anything from 15,000 to 30,000
bees, would be rented out to a fruit grower for about $135 – a price that is up from$55 only three years ago. To keep the bees’ energy up
while they are pollinating, beekeepers feed them protein supplements
and syrup carried around in large tanks.

It is in these migratory colonies where the biggest losses have been
seen. But the stress theory is as much speculation as anything else.
At the moment, the disappearance of America’s bees is as big a mystery
as the disappearance of London’s sparrows.

From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ]

TELL THE FUTURE!!  IMPRESS YOUR FRIENDS!!

http://www.freemarketnews.com/WorldNews.asp?nid=22476

(REPOST)
PUTS FORECAST OCT. SURPRISE?

Sunday, October 01, 2006 – FreeMarketNews.com

INITIAL POST 09.30.06

A faithful reader and commentator, “A. Magnus” writes the following
email, posted to FMNN General Feedback:

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markets? If you believe that those in the know use insider information
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Make no mistake – something wicked this way comes, and the smart money

IS THIS FOR REAL? ANYBODY?

SUPPRESSED DETAILS OF CRIMINAL INSIDER TRADING
LEAD DIRECTLY INTO THE CIA’S HIGHEST RANKS

CIA EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR “BUZZY” KRONGARD
MANAGED FIRM THAT HANDLED “PUT” OPTIONS ON UAL

by Michael C. Ruppert

for non-profit purposes only.]
FTW, October 9, 2001 – Although uniformly ignored by the mainstream
U.S. media, there is abundant and clear evidence that a number of
transactions in financial markets indicated specific (criminal)
foreknowledge of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and
the Pentagon. In the case of at least one of these trades — which has
left a $2.5 million prize unclaimed — the firm used to place the “put options” on United Airlines stock was, until 1998, managed by the man who is now in the number three Executive Director position at the Central Intelligence Agency. Until 1997 A.B. “Buzzy” Krongard had been Chairman of the investment bank A.B. Brown. A.B. Brown was acquired by Banker’s Trust in 1997. Krongard then became, as part of the merger, Vice Chairman of Banker’s Trust-AB Brown, one of 20 major U.S. banks named by Senator Carl Levin this year as being connected to money laundering. Krongard’s last position at Banker’s Trust (BT) was to oversee “private client relations”. In this capacity he had direct hands-on relations with some of the wealthiest people in the world in a kind of specialized banking operation that has been identified by the U.S. Senate and other investigators as being closely connected to the laundering of drug money. Krongard (re?) joined the CIA in 1998 as counsel to CIA Director George Tenet. He was promoted to CIA Executive Director by President Bush in March of this year. BT was acquired by Deutsche Bank in 1999. The combined firm is the single largest bank in Europe. And, as we shall see, Deutsche Bank played several key roles in events connected to the September 11 attacks. THE SCOPE OF KNOWN INSIDER TRADING Before looking further into these relationships it is necessary to look at the insider trading information that is being ignored by Reuters, The New York Times and other mass media. It is well documented that the CIA has long monitored such trades – in real time – as potential warnings of terrorist attacks and other economic moves contrary to U.S. interests. Previous stories in FTW have specifically highlighted the use of Promis software to monitor such trades. It is necessary to understand only two key financial terms to understand the significance of these trades, “selling short” and “put options”. “Selling Short” is the borrowing of stock, selling it at current market prices, but not being required to actually produce the stock for some time. If the stock falls precipitously after the short contract is entered, the seller can then fulfill the contract by buying the stock after the price has fallen and complete the contract at the pre-crash price. These contracts often have a window of as long as four months. “Put Options” are contracts giving the buyer the option to sell stocks at a later date. Purchased at nominal prices of, for example,$1.00 per
share, they are sold in blocks of 100 shares. If exercised, they give
the holder the option of selling selected stocks at a future date at a
price set when the contract is issued. Thus, for an investment of
$10,000 it might be possible to tie up 10,000 shares of United or American Airlines at$100 per share, and the seller of the option is
then obligated to buy them if the option is executed. If the stock has
fallen to $50 when the contract matures, the holder of the option can purchase the shares for$50 and immediately sell them for $100 – regardless of where the market then stands. A call option is the reverse of a put option, which is, in effect, a derivatives bet that the stock price will go up. A September 21 story by the Israeli Herzliyya International Policy Institute for Counter terrorism, entitled “Black Tuesday: The World’s Largest Insider Trading Scam?” documented the following trades connected to the September 11 attacks: – Between September 6 and 7, the Chicago Board Options Exchange saw purchases of 4,744 put options on United Airlines, but only 396 call options. Assuming that 4,000 of the options were bought by people with advance knowledge of the imminent attacks, these “insiders” would have profited by almost$5 million.

– On September 10, 4,516 put options on American Airlines were bought
on the Chicago exchange, compared to only 748 calls. Again, there was
no news at that point to justify this imbalance; Again, assuming that
4,000 of these options trades represent “insiders”, they would
represent a gain of about $4 million. – [The levels of put options purchased above were more than six times higher than normal.] – No similar trading in other airlines occurred on the Chicago exchange in the days immediately preceding Black Tuesday. – Morgan Stanley Dean Witter & Co., which occupied 22 floors of the World Trade Center, saw 2,157 of its October$45 put options bought in
the three trading days before Black Tuesday; this compares to an
average of 27 contracts per day before September 6. Morgan Stanley’s
share price fell from $48.90 to$42.50 in the aftermath of the attacks.
Assuming that 2,000 of these options contracts were bought based upon
knowledge of the approaching attacks, their purchasers could have
profited by at least $1.2 million. – Merrill Lynch & Co., which occupied 22 floors of the World Trade Center, saw 12,215 October$45 put options bought in the four trading
days before the attacks; the previous average volume in those shares
resumed, Merrill’s shares fell from $46.88 to$41.50; assuming that
11,000 option contracts were bought by “insiders”, their profit would
have been about $5.5 million. – European regulators are examining trades in Germany’s Munich Re, Switzerland’s Swiss Re, and AXA of France, all major reinsurers with exposure to the Black Tuesday disaster. [FTW Note: AXA also owns more than 25% of American Airlines stock making the attacks a “double whammy” for them.] On September 29, 2001 – in a vital story that has gone unnoticed by the major media – the San Francisco Chronicle reported, “Investors have yet to collect more than$2.5 million in profits they made trading options
in the stock of United Airlines before the Sept. 11, terrorist attacks,
according to a source familiar with the trades and market data”.

“The uncollected money raises suspicions that the investors – whose
knowledge of the strikes”. They don’t dare show up now. The suspension
of trading for four days after the attacks made it impossible to
cash-out quickly and claim the prize before investigators started
looking.

“October series options for UAL Corp. were purchased in highly unusual
volumes three trading days before the terrorist attacks for a total
outlay of $2,070; investors bought the option contracts, each representing 100 shares, for 90 cents each. [This represents 230,000 shares]. Those options are now selling at more than$12 each. There are
still 2,313 so-called “put” options outstanding [valued at \$2.77
million and representing 231,300 shares] according to the Options
Clearinghouse Corp”.

“The source familiar with the United trades identified Deutsche Bank
Alex. Brown, the American investment banking arm of German giant
Deutsche Bank, as the investment bank used to purchase at least some of
these options” This was the operation managed by Krongard until as
recently as 1998.

As reported in other news stories, Deutsche Bank was also the hub of
insider trading activity connected to Munich Re. just before the
attacks.

CIA, THE BANKS AND THE BROKERS

Understanding the interrelationships between CIA and the banking and
brokerage world is critical to grasping the already frightening
implications of the above revelations. Let’s look at the history of
CIA, Wall Street and the big banks by looking at some of the key
players in CIA’s history.

Clark Clifford – The National Security Act of 1947 was written by Clark
Clifford, a Democratic Party powerhouse, former Secretary of Defense,
and one-time advisor to President Harry Truman. In the 1980s, as
Chairman of First American Bancshares, Clifford was instrumental in
getting the corrupt CIA drug bank BCCI a license to operate on American
shores. His profession: Wall Street lawyer and banker.

John Foster and Allen Dulles – These two brothers “designed” the CIA
for Clifford. Both were active in intelligence operations during WW II.
Allen Dulles was the U.S. Ambassador to Switzerland where he met
frequently with Nazi leaders and looked after U.S. investments in
Germany. John Foster went on to become Secretary of State under Dwight
Eisenhower and Allen went on to serve as CIA Director under Eisenhower
and was later fired by JFK. Their professions: partners in the most
powerful – to this day – Wall Street law firm of Sullivan, Cromwell.

Bill Casey – Ronald Reagan’s CIA Director and OSS veteran who served as
chief wrangler during the Iran-Contra years was, under President
Richard Nixon, Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission. His
profession: Wall Street lawyer and stockbroker.

David Doherty – The current Vice President of the New York Stock
Exchange for enforcement is the retired General Counsel of the Central
Intelligence Agency.

George Herbert Walker Bush – President from 1989 to January 1993, also
served as CIA Director for 13 months from 1976-7. He is now a paid
consultant to the Carlyle Group, the 11th largest defense contractor in
the nation, which also shares joint investments with the bin Laden
family.

A.B. “Buzzy” Krongard – The current Executive Director of the Central
Intelligence Agency is the former Chairman of the investment bank A.B.
Brown and former Vice Chairman of Banker’s Trust.

John Deutch – This retired CIA Director from the Clinton Administration
currently sits on the board at Citigroup, the nation’s second largest
bank, which has been repeatedly and overtly involved in the documented
laundering of drug money. This includes Citigroup’s 2001 purchase of a
Mexican bank known to launder drug money, Banamex.

Nora Slatkin – This retired CIA Executive Director also sits on
Citibank’s board.

Maurice “Hank” Greenburg – The CEO of AIG insurance, manager of the
third largest capital investment pool in the world, was floated as a
possible CIA Director in 1995. FTW exposed Greenberg’s and AIG’s long
connection to CIA drug trafficking and covert operations in a two-part
series that was interrupted just prior to the attacks of September 11.
AIG’s stock has bounced back remarkably well since the attacks. To read