AND WHY:

MAGNETOSPHERE PASS JANUARY 14 2008
http://messenger.jhuapl.edu/news_room/images/solomon/Solomon02_MagnFlyby.mov

THE DARK SIDE
http://messenger.jhuapl.edu/gallery/sciencePhotos/

“When Mariner 10 flew past Mercury three times in 1974 and 1975, the same hemisphere was in sunlight during each encounter. As a consequence, Mariner 10 was able to image less than half the planet. Planetary scientists have wondered for more than 30 years about what spacecraft images might reveal about the hemisphere of Mercury that Mariner 10 never viewed.

“On January 14, 2008, the MESSENGER spacecraft observed about half of the hemisphere missed by Mariner 10. (…)

“Like the previously mapped portion of Mercury, this hemisphere appears heavily cratered. It also reveals some unique and distinctive features. On the upper right is the giant Caloris basin, including its western portions never before seen by spacecraft. Formed by the impact of a large asteroid or comet, Caloris is one of the largest, and perhaps one of the youngest, basins in the Solar System. The new image shows the complete basin interior and reveals that it is brighter than the surrounding regions and may therefore have a different composition. Darker smooth plains completely surround Caloris, and many unusual dark-rimmed craters are observed inside the basin. Several other multi-ringed basins are seen in this image for the first time. Prominent fault scarps (large ridges) lace the newly viewed region….”