From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ]
THE TROUBLING PART
“One business executive, who showed me his InfraGard card, told me
they have permission to ‘shoot to kill’ in the event of martial law.”
“InfraGard is an information sharing and analysis effort serving the
interests and combining the knowledge base of a wide range of members.
At its most basic level, InfraGard is a partnership between the
Federal Bureau of Investigation and the private sector. InfraGard is
an association of businesses, academic institutions, state and local
law enforcement agencies, and other participants dedicated to sharing
information and intelligence to prevent hostile acts against the
United States. InfraGard Chapters are geographically linked with FBI
Field Office territories.”
The benefits of joining InfraGard include:
* Network with other companies that help maintain our national
infrastructure. Quick Fact: 350 of our nation’s Fortune 500 have a
representative in InfraGard.
* Gain access to an FBI secure communication network complete with
VPN encrypted website, webmail, listservs, message boards and much
* Learn time-sensative, infrastructure related security
information from government sources such as DHS and the FBI.
* Get invitations and discounts to important training seminars and
* Best of all, there is no cost to join InfraGard
Q: What is InfraGard?
A: A government and private sector alliance. InfraGard was developed
by FBI Cleveland in 1996 to promote protection of critical information
systems. InfraGard provides formal and informal channels for the
exchange of information about infrastructure threats and
Q: Why do we need InfraGard?
A: InfraGard is needed for several reasons:
* Most infrastructure components are privately owned and operated;
* The government and the private sector have a wealth of
information on threats to our systems, and this wealth needs to be
shared and analyzed;
* Systems are often interconnected;
* Reliance on automation is increasing;
* Tools to do harm are widely available and do not require a high
degree of technical skill;
* Globalization of infrastructures increases exposure to potential
* Sophisticated communication systems in the hacker community; and
* Victims often do not report cyber intrusions (Institutional
concerns about the outcome and confusion about when/where to report
Q: Which threats does InfraGard address?
A: Unstructured Threats (Insiders, Recreational Hackers, and
Institutional Hackers); Structured Threats (Organized Crime,
Industrial Espionage and Terrorists); and National Security Threats
(Intelligence Agencies and Information Warriors).
Q: How does the government benefit from InfraGard?
A: The benefits are:
1. More computer intrusions are reported;
2. Satisfies PDD-63 requirement for the FBI to play an active role
in protecting our critical infrastructures;
3. New channels to disseminate threat warnings to the private
sector and other government agencies;
4. New contacts in the business community;
5. Prompt threat warnings from the FBI and other InfraGard members;
6. Better understanding of the FBI and other law enforcement
resources available to combat cyber and physical threats;
7. Education and training on cyber and physical security topics;
8. The opportunity to interact and share information with
representatives from the law enforcement community, academia, private
industry, and other government agencies.
FBI Deputizes Business
BY Matthew Rothschild / February 7, 2008
Today, more than 23,000 representatives of private industry are
working quietly with the FBI and the Department of Homeland Security.
The members of this rapidly growing group, called InfraGard, receive
secret warnings of terrorist threats before the public does–and, at
least on one occasion, before elected officials. In return, they
provide information to the government, which alarms the ACLU. But
there may be more to it than that. One business executive, who showed
me his InfraGard card, told me they have permission to “shoot to kill”
in the event of martial law.
InfraGard is “a child of the FBI,” says Michael Hershman, the chairman
of the advisory board of the InfraGard National Members Alliance and
CEO of the Fairfax Group, an international consulting firm.
InfraGard started in Cleveland back in 1996, when the private sector
there cooperated with the FBI to investigate cyber threats.
“Then the FBI cloned it,” says Phyllis Schneck, chairman of the board
of directors of the InfraGard National Members Alliance, and the prime
mover behind the growth of InfraGard over the last several years.
InfraGard itself is still an FBI operation, with FBI agents in each
state overseeing the local InfraGard chapters. (There are now eighty-
six of them.) The alliance is a nonprofit organization of private
sector InfraGard members.
“We are the owners, operators, and experts of our critical
infrastructure, from the CEO of a large company in agriculture or high
finance to the guy who turns the valve at the water utility,” says
Schneck, who by day is the vice president of research integration at
“At its most basic level, InfraGard is a partnership between the
Federal Bureau of Investigation and the private sector,” the InfraGard
website states. “InfraGard chapters are geographically linked with FBI
Field Office territories.”
In November 2001, InfraGard had around 1,700 members. As of late
January, InfraGard had 23,682 members, according to its website,
http://www.infragard.net, which adds that “350 of our nation’s Fortune 500
have a representative in InfraGard.”
To join, each person must be sponsored by “an existing InfraGard
member, chapter, or partner organization.” The FBI then vets the
applicant. On the application form, prospective members are asked
which aspect of the critical infrastructure their organization deals
with. These include: agriculture, banking and finance, the chemical
industry, defense, energy, food, information and telecommunications,
law enforcement, public health, and transportation.
FBI Director Robert Mueller addressed an InfraGard convention on
August 9, 2005. At that time, the group had less than half as many
members as it does today. “To date, there are more than 11,000 members
of InfraGard,” he said. “From our perspective that amounts to 11,000
contacts . . . and 11,000 partners in our mission to protect America.”
He added a little later, “Those of you in the private sector are the
first line of defense.”
He urged InfraGard members to contact the FBI if they “note suspicious
activity or an unusual event.” And he said they could sic the FBI on
“disgruntled employees who will use knowledge gained on the job
against their employers.”
In an interview with InfraGard after the conference, which is featured
prominently on the InfraGard members’ website, Mueller says: “It’s a
The ACLU is not so sanguine.
“There is evidence that InfraGard may be closer to a corporate TIPS
program, turning private-sector corporations–some of which may be in a
position to observe the activities of millions of individual customers–
into surrogate eyes and ears for the FBI,” the ACLU warned in its
August 2004 report The Surveillance-Industrial Complex: How the
American Government Is Conscripting Businesses and Individuals in the
Construction of a Surveillance Society.
InfraGard is not readily accessible to the general public. Its
communications with the FBI and Homeland Security are beyond the reach
of the Freedom of Information Act under the “trade secrets” exemption,
its website says. And any conversation with the public or the media is
supposed to be carefully rehearsed.
“The interests of InfraGard must be protected whenever presented to
non-InfraGard members,” the website states. “During interviews with
members of the press, controlling the image of InfraGard being
presented can be difficult. Proper preparation for the interview will
minimize the risk of embarrassment. . . . The InfraGard leadership and
the local FBI representative should review the submitted questions,
agree on the predilection of the answers, and identify the appropriate
interviewee. . . . Tailor answers to the expected audience. . . .
Questions concerning sensitive information should be avoided.”
One of the advantages of InfraGard, according to its leading members,
is that the FBI gives them a heads-up on a secure portal about any
threatening information related to infrastructure disruption or
The InfraGard website advertises this. In its list of benefits of
joining InfraGard, it states: “Gain access to an FBI secure
communication network complete with VPN encrypted website, webmail,
listservs, message boards, and much more.”
InfraGard members receive “almost daily updates” on threats “emanating
from both domestic sources and overseas,” Hershman says.
“We get very easy access to secure information that only goes to
InfraGard members,” Schneck says. “People are happy to be in the
On November 1, 2001, the FBI had information about a potential threat
to the bridges of California. The alert went out to the InfraGard
membership. Enron was notified, and so, too, was Barry Davis, who
worked for Morgan Stanley. He notified his brother Gray, the governor
“He said his brother talked to him before the FBI,” recalls Steve
Maviglio, who was Davis’s press secretary at the time. “And the
governor got a lot of grief for releasing the information. In his
defense, he said, ‘I was on the phone with my brother, who is an
investment banker. And if he knows, why shouldn’t the public know?’ ”
Maviglio still sounds perturbed about this: “You’d think an elected
official would be the first to know, not the last.”
In return for being in the know, InfraGard members cooperate with the
FBI and Homeland Security. “InfraGard members have contributed to
about 100 FBI cases,” Schneck says. “What InfraGard brings you is
reach into the regional and local communities. We are a 22,000-member
vetted body of subject-matter experts that reaches across seventeen
matrixes. All the different stovepipes can connect with InfraGard.”
Schneck is proud of the relationships the InfraGard Members Alliance
has built with the FBI. “If you had to call 1-800-FBI, you probably
wouldn’t bother,” she says. “But if you knew Joe from a local meeting
you had with him over a donut, you might call them. Either to give or
to get. We want everyone to have a little black book.”
This black book may come in handy in times of an emergency. “On the
back of each membership card,” Schneck says, “we have all the numbers
you’d need: for Homeland Security, for the FBI, for the cyber center.
And by calling up as an InfraGard member, you will be listened to.”
She also says that members would have an easier time obtaining a
“special telecommunications card that will enable your call to go
through when others will not.”
This special status concerns the ACLU.
“The FBI should not be creating a privileged class of Americans who
get special treatment,” says Jay Stanley, public education director of
the ACLU’s technology and liberty program. “There’s no ‘business
class’ in law enforcement. If there’s information the FBI can share
with 22,000 corporate bigwigs, why don’t they just share it with the
public? That’s who their real ‘special relationship’ is supposed to be
with. Secrecy is not a party favor to be given out to friends. . . .
This bears a disturbing resemblance to the FBI’s handing out ‘goodies’
to corporations in return for folding them into its domestic
When the government raises its alert levels, InfraGard is in the loop.
For instance, in a press release on February 7, 2003, the Secretary of
Homeland Security and the Attorney General announced that the national
alert level was being raised from yellow to orange. They then listed
“additional steps” that agencies were taking to “increase their
protective measures.” One of those steps was to “provide alert
information to InfraGard program.”
“They’re very much looped into our readiness capability,” says Amy
Kudwa, spokeswoman for the Department of Homeland Security. “We
provide speakers, as well as do joint presentations [with the FBI]. We
also train alongside them, and they have participated in readiness
On May 9, 2007, George Bush issued National Security Presidential
Directive 51 entitled “National Continuity Policy.” In it, he
instructed the Secretary of Homeland Security to coordinate with
“private sector owners and operators of critical infrastructure, as
appropriate, in order to provide for the delivery of essential
services during an emergency.”
Asked if the InfraGard National Members Alliance was involved with
these plans, Schneck said it was “not directly participating at this
point.” Hershman, chairman of the group’s advisory board, however,
said that it was.
InfraGard members, sometimes hundreds at a time, have been used in
“national emergency preparation drills,” Schneck acknowledges.
“In case something happens, everybody is ready,” says Norm Arendt, the
head of the Madison, Wisconsin, chapter of InfraGard, and the safety
director for the consulting firm Short Elliott Hendrickson, Inc.
“There’s been lots of discussions about what happens under an
One business owner in the United States tells me that InfraGard
members are being advised on how to prepare for a martial law situation
–and what their role might be. He showed me his InfraGard card, with
his name and e-mail address on the front, along with the InfraGard
logo and its slogan, “Partnership for Protection.” On the back of the
card were the emergency numbers that Schneck mentioned.
This business owner says he attended a small InfraGard meeting where
agents of the FBI and Homeland Security discussed in astonishing
detail what InfraGard members may be called upon to do.
“The meeting started off innocuously enough, with the speakers talking
about corporate espionage,” he says. “From there, it just progressed.
All of a sudden we were knee deep in what was expected of us when
martial law is declared. We were expected to share all our resources,
but in return we’d be given specific benefits.” These included, he
says, the ability to travel in restricted areas and to get people out.
But that’s not all.
“Then they said when–not if–martial law is declared, it was our
responsibility to protect our portion of the infrastructure, and if we
had to use deadly force to protect it, we couldn’t be prosecuted,” he
I was able to confirm that the meeting took place where he said it
had, and that the FBI and Homeland Security did make presentations
there. One InfraGard member who attended that meeting denies that the
subject of lethal force came up. But the whistleblower is 100 percent
certain of it. “I have nothing to gain by telling you this, and
everything to lose,” he adds. “I’m so nervous about this, and I’m not
someone who gets nervous.”
Though Schneck says that FBI and Homeland Security agents do make
presentations to InfraGard, she denies that InfraGard members would
have any civil patrol or law enforcement functions. “I have never
heard of InfraGard members being told to use lethal force anywhere,”
The FBI adamantly denies it, also. “That’s ridiculous,” says Catherine
Milhoan, an FBI spokesperson. “If you want to quote a businessperson
saying that, knock yourself out. If that’s what you want to print,
But one other InfraGard member corroborated the whistleblower’s
account, and another would not deny it.
Christine Moerke is a business continuity consultant for Alliant
Energy in Madison, Wisconsin. She says she’s an InfraGard member, and
she confirms that she has attended InfraGard meetings that went into
the details about what kind of civil patrol function–including
engaging in lethal force–that InfraGard members may be called upon to
“There have been discussions like that, that I’ve heard of and
participated in,” she says.
Curt Haugen is CEO of S’Curo Group, a company that does “strategic
planning, business continuity planning and disaster recovery, physical
and IT security, policy development, internal control, personnel
selection, and travel safety,” according to its website. Haugen tells
me he is a former FBI agent and that he has been an InfraGard member
for many years. He is a huge booster. “It’s the only true organization
where there is the public-private partnership,” he says. “It’s all who
knows who. You know a face, you trust a face. That’s what makes it
He says InfraGard “absolutely” does emergency preparedness exercises.
When I ask about discussions the FBI and Homeland Security have had
with InfraGard members about their use of lethal force, he says: “That
much I cannot comment on. But as a private citizen, you have the right
to use force if you feel threatened.”
“We were assured that if we were forced to kill someone to protect our
infrastructure, there would be no repercussions,” the whistleblower
says. “It gave me goose bumps. It chilled me to the bone.”
Matthew Rothschild is the editor of The Progressive magazine and the
author of “You Have No Rights: Stories of America in an Age of
Repression.” This article, “The FBI Deputizes Business,” is the cover
story of the March issue of The Progressive.