From the archive, originally posted by: [ spectre ]
CIA Releases Top-Secret Documents
By William Branigin / June 26, 2007
The CIA today released hundreds of pages of formerly top-secret
documents on activities ranging from a plot to assassinate Cuban
leader Fidel Castro to domestic espionage against Americans.
The documents, described in internal CIA memoranda as the “family
jewels,” mostly cover activities in the 1960s and early 1970s that the
agency considered likely to cause embarrassment if revealed. They
include material compiled as part of a directive to review CIA
activity that apparently violated federal law or could be construed as
Totaling 693 pages, the “family jewels” describe assassination plots,
eavesdropping on American journalists, spying on civil rights
activists and opponents of the Vietnam War, the surreptitious testing
of dangerous drugs on citizens, break-ins at the homes of former CIA
employees and sources and the opening of mail between the United
States and the Soviet Union and China.
The documents were turned over to three investigative committees in
the early 1970s and fueled probes that damaged the CIA’s reputation
and led to a congressional crackdown. Much of the information has been
made public in some form since then, but today’s massive release of
documents provided greater detail on a number of closely held
activities, including cases of domestic spying that violated the CIA’s
The material was released at the direction of the CIA’s director, Air
Force Gen. Michael V. Hayden, in an effort to come clean about some
aspects of the agency’s past and to set the historical record
The “family jewels” documents were compiled in response to a 1973
directive from the CIA’s then-director, James R. Schlesinger, who
wanted CIA employees to report “activities they thought might be
inconsistent with the Agency’s charter,” according to the CIA’s Web
Also released today was a collection of 11,000 pages of analysis and
research dating from 1953 to 1973. Those papers focus primarily on the
“Soviet and Chinese leadership hierarchies” and on Sino-Soviet
FOIA Electronic Reading Room
CIA Releases Two Significant Collections of Historical Documents
Two significant collections of previously classified historical
documents are now available in the CIA’s FOIA Electronic Reading Room.
The first collection, widely known as the “Family Jewels,” consists of
almost 700 pages of responses from CIA employees to a 1973 directive
from Director of Central Intelligence James Schlesinger asking them to
report activities they thought might be inconsistent with the Agency’s
The second collection, the CAESAR-POLO-ESAU papers, consists of 147
documents and 11,000 pages of in-depth analysis and research from 1953
to 1973. The CAESAR and POLO papers studied Soviet and Chinese
leadership hierarchies, respectively, and the ESAU papers were
developed by analysts to inform CIA assessments on Sino-Soviet
This report is the response of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
to Section 2(b) of Executive Order 13392 which requires the Chief
Freedom of Information Act Officer of each federal agency subject to
the FOIA to develop an “agency-specific plan to ensure that the
agency’s administration of the FOIA is in accordance with applicable
law and the policies set forth in section 1 of this Order.”
THE TRIALS OF HENRY KISSINGER
New documents link Kissinger to two 1970s coups
Larisa Alexandrovna and Muriel Kane / Tuesday June 26, 2007
Release of CIA’s ‘Family Jewels’ provides insight into political
juggernaut and Bush Administration adviser
Former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger pushed for the 1974 Turkish
invasion of Cyprus and allowed arms to be moved to Ankara for an
attack on that island in reaction to a coup sponsored by the Greek
junta, according to documents and intelligence officers with close
knowledge of the event.
Nearly 700 pages of highly classified Central Intelligence Agency
reports from the 1970’s, known collectively as the “Family Jewels,”
are slated for public release today.
However, the National Security Archive had previously obtained four
related documents through the Freedom of Information Act and made them
“In all the world the things that hurt us the most are the CIA
business and Turkey aid,” Kissinger declares in one of those
documents, a White House memorandum of a conversation from Feb. 20,
1975. On the surface, the comment seems innocuous, but the context as
well as the time period suggests Kissinger had abetted illegal
financial aid and arms support to Turkey for its 1974 Cyprus invasion.
In July and August of 1974, Turkey staged a military invasion of the
island nation of Cyprus, taking over nearly a third of the island and
creating a divide between the south and north. Most historians
consider that Kissinger – then Secretary of State and National
Security Advisor to President Gerald Ford – not only knew about the
planned attack on Cyprus, but encouraged it.
Some Greek Cypriots believed then, and still believe, that the
invasion was a deliberate plot on the part of Britain and the US to
maintain their influence on the island, which was particularly
important as a listening post in the Eastern Mediterranean in the wake
of the October 1973 War between Israel, Egypt, Jordan and Syria.
According to columnist Christopher Hitchens, author of the book The
Trial of Henry Kissinger, “At the time, many Greeks believed that the
significant thing was that [Prime Minister Bulent] Ecevit had been a
pupil of Kissinger’s at Harvard.”
Several intelligence sources, who wished to remain anonymous to
maintain the security of their identity, confirmed to RAW STORY that
Kissinger both pushed for the Turkish invasion of Cyprus and allowed
arms to be moved to Ankara.
However, a former CIA officer who was working in Turkey at the time,
suggests that Kissinger’s statement in the memorandum about Turkish
aid likely means the Ford administration, following Kissinger’s
advice, conducted business under the table with right-wing ultra-
nationalist General Kenan Evren, who later dissolved Parliament and
became the dictator of Turkey in a 1980 coup.
“The implication is that the US government was dealing directly with
General Evren and circumventing the [democratically elected] Turkish
government,” the former CIA officer said. “This was authorized by
Kissinger, because they were nervous about Ecevit, who was a Social
“We technically cut off military aid for them,” the officer added,
referring to an arms embargo passed by Congress after the invasion.
“Technically… technically, but this would imply that the military and/
or probably CIA aid continued even after the aid was cut off by
Congress. This may substantively be what led to the overthrow
eventually of Ecevit.”
According to the former CIA officer, Turkey’s democratically elected
President Ecevit had good relations with the Johnson administration,
but the Nixon administration, where Kissinger served as National
Security Advisor and Secretary of State, had issues with Ecevit.
“I don’t remember now what all the issues were,” the source said. “But
I remember that the White House did not like Ecevit.”
Kissinger could not be reached for comment Monday.
Kissinger, Rumsfeld, and Cheney, then and now
Though no longer a government official, Kissinger remains a powerful
force in Washington – particularly within the Bush Administration. Dr.
Kissinger was the first choice by President Bush to lead a blue ribbon
investigation into the attacks of September 11, 2001. However, he
resigned shortly after the 9/11 Family Steering Committee had a
private meeting with him at his Kissinger and Associates Inc. New York
office and asked him point blank if he had any clients by the name of
According to Monica Gabrielle, who lost her husband Richard in the
attacks and who was present as part of the 12-member 9/11 Family
Steering Committee during the private meeting, the White House seems
to have overlooked Dr. Kissinger’s apparent conflict of interest.
“We had the meeting with him… the whole Steering Committee, all 12
of us. Because we are basically doing our due diligence and asking for
his client list to be released to see if there was a conflict of
interest between his client list and potential areas of
investigation,” said Gabrielle during a Tuesday morning phone
conversation, recounting the events of December 12, 2002. “We went
back and forth with him, discussing his client list… asking him who
was on it, if there were conflicts and so forth,” she continued.
“Lorie [Van Auken] asked, do you have any Saudi clients on your list?
And he got a blank look. Then Lorie asked, do you have any clients by
the name of Bin Laden? And he was stuttering and mumbling, and finally
said he would maybe, possibly consider releasing the client list to an
attorney but not for the public.”
Dr. Kissinger did not reveal his client list but withdrew his name the
next day without public explanation.
In Bob Woodward’s State of Denial, Kissinger says he met regularly
with Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney to offer advice about the war
in Iraq. “Victory over the insurgency is the only meaningful exit
strategy,” Kissinger said.
Cheney, along with former Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, first
came to prominence during the administration of President Ford.
Rumsfeld had served in various posts under Nixon before being sent to
Europe as the US ambassador to NATO in 1973, a period that included
the Cyprus coup. When Ford became president on August 9, 1974,
immediately preceding the second wave of the Turkish invasion of
Cyprus, Rumsfeld returned to Washington to serve as his chief of
staff, while Cheney became deputy assistant to the president.
Rumsfeld and Cheney gained increasing influence under Ford, reaching
their apex of power in November 1975 with a shakeup that saw Rumsfeld
installed as Secretary of Defense, Dick Cheney as White House chief of
staff, and George H.W. Bush replacing William Colby as CIA director.
Together, Rumsfeld and Cheney created a bubble not unlike the one that
has enveloped President George W. Bush’s White House, surrounding Ford
with a close knit group of advisors who worked to head off any
possibility of openness about past misdeeds and to turn the
administration sharply to the right.
The aid to Turkey referenced in Kissinger’s cryptic remark was
precisely the subject of Congressional oversight on the Executive
Branch in 1974-75. In a foreshadowing of how Iran Contra would play
out a decade later, the White House violated both US and international
law in providing arms and financing to the Turks for the Cyprus
The CIA, through various spokespeople, would not comment on how much
additional information with regard to Kissinger, the attack on Cyprus,
and the events leading up to the 1980 coup in Turkey with US support
would be part of the declassified documents to come out this week. The
only thing the agency would say is that “this was a different CIA at a
different time,” and “people need to remember that.”
The Chile Coup
Around the time of President Nixon’s resignation in August 1974,
investigative reporter Seymour Hersh started hearing accounts of
illegal foreign and domestic CIA activities. On December 20, 1974,
Hersh confronted CIA Director William Colby and received confirmation
of everything he had learned. Two days later, Hersh went public with
The Family Jewels were described in a New York Times front page
article titled “Huge C.I.A. Operation Reported in U.S. Against Antiwar
Forces, Other Dissidents in Nixon Years.” According to Hersh, James
Schlesinger, who served briefly as CIA director in 1973, had ordered
the report in response to the crimes collectively known as Watergate.
Hersh’s article stated, “An extensive investigation by the New York
Times has established that intelligence files on at least 10,000
American citizens were maintained by a special unit of the C.I.A. that
was reporting directly to Richard Helms, then the Director of Central
Intelligence and now the Ambassador to Iran.”
Then-CIA director William Colby’s initial impulse was to reveal
everything in order to give the CIA a clean slate, but President Ford
and Kissinger disagreed. By January 3, 1975 when Colby was summoned to
the White House for a briefing, they had decided to keep the lid on by
forming a blue ribbon commission under Vice President Nelson
The “memorandum of conversation” document released by the National
Security Archive, dated January 4, 1975, transcribes portions of a
follow-up meeting between Ford and Kissinger the next day.
Kissinger complains to President Ford about Colby’s urge to come
clean, saying, “You will end up with a CIA that does only reporting,
and not operations … He has turned over to the FBI the whole of his
Former CIA Director Helms “said all these stories are just the tip of
the iceberg,” Kissinger continues, adding “If they come out, blood
will flow.” After offering a few examples, Kissinger concludes by
remarking mysteriously, “The Chilean thing — that is not in any
report. That is sort of blackmail on me.”
The meaning of this remark is far from clear, suggesting as it does
that the 693 pages of the Family Jewels were only “the tip of the
iceberg” and that among what was left out was a “Chilean thing” that
Kissinger perceived as having the potential for blackmail on himself.
It has been known since the revelations of the 70’s that prior to
Chile’s 1970 presidential elections, President Richard Nixon,
Kissinger and Helms actively pursued ways to head off the victory of
leftist Salvador Allende, including sponsoring an abortive military
“I don’t see why we need to stand by and watch a country go Communist
because of the irresponsibility of its own people,” Kissinger famously
said at the time.
After Allende was democratically elected and became president, the US
put economic pressure on Chile and encouraged further military plots
— a two-pronged strategy similar to that currently being employed
against Iran — while Kissinger a continued to press for stronger
The CIA’s Directorate of Operations was particularly active in Chile
in 1972-73, the period leading up to Allende’s violent overthrow in
September 1973 in a military coup led by General Augusto Pinochet.
Following the coup, Kissinger strongly supported the new authoritarian
After Helms left the CIA in 1973 to become ambassador to Iran, he
offered a series of vague denials when asked about CIA involvement in
Chile. Among Helms’ claims were “that the CIA hadn’t given money
directly to Allende’s opponents, that the CIA didn’t try to fix the
vote in the Chilean Congress because investigation had shown it
couldn’t be arranged, that the CIA didn’t try to overthrow the Chilean
government because the Agency failed to find anyone who could really
In 1977, Helms was convicted of perjury for his statements and given a
two-year suspended sentence and a fine that was paid by his friends
from the CIA. As with the more recent perjury of Vice President
Cheney’s former chief of staff Scooter Libby’s concerning the outing
of a CIA officer, Helms’ had lies served the purpose of protecting his
superiors, notably Kissinger.
However, in Prelude to Terror, historian Joseph Trento offers a
somewhat different account of Helms’ actions, suggesting a deeper
“From Iran, Helms heard enough about the criminal investigation to
issue a threat through his old colleague Tom Braden,” Trento writes.
“Braden remembered Helms saying, ‘If I am going to be charged, then I
will reveal Kissinger’s role in these operations.'” Trento adds in a
footnote that “Helms himself confided to old friend and CIA colleague
(from Iran) Tom Braden that he would resort to [revealing embarrassing
state secrets] and ‘bring down Henry Kissinger’ in the process.”
Even apart from Trento’s assertions, Kissinger’s concern with “the
Chilean thing — that is not in any report” hints at involvement in
the 1973 coup. But if Trento’s claims are accurate, Kissinger might
also have been referring to a threat by Helms to bring him down, both
in his remark that “Helms said all these stories are just the tip of
the iceberg. If they come out, blood will flow,” and in his cryptic
description of “the Chilean thing” as “sort of blackmail on me.”
Kissinger McLarty Associates
350 Park Avenue
New York (212) 759-7919
Washington, D.C. (202) 822-8182
“Kissinger Associates and its affiliate, Kissinger McLarty Associates,
provide strategic advisory and advocacy services to a select group of
U.S. and multinational companies. The firms provide high-level
intervention regarding special projects, assist their clients to
identify strategic partners and investment opportunities, and advise
clients on government relations throughout the world. KAI was founded
in 1982 by former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. In 1999, former
Clinton Chief of Staff and Special Envoy for the Americas Thomas F.
McLarty joined KAI as Vice-Chairman, and established a Washington
office of KAI known as Kissinger McLarty Associates (KMA). The firm
does not, however, lobby the United States government or engage in
conduct that would require us to register as foreign agents under US
law, nor do we accept fees from foreign governments.” – From
Council on the Americas Bio
“Kissinger Associates, Inc., founded in 1982, is a New York City-based
international consulting firm, founded and run by Henry Kissinger. The
firm assists its clients in identifying strategic partners and
investment opportunities, and advises clients on government relations
throughout the world.
Kissinger Associates does not disclose its list of corporate clients,
and reportedly bars clients from acknowledging the relationship.
However, over time details from proxy statements and the tendency of
senior businessmen to talk about their relationship with Kissinger
have leaked out and a number of major corporate clients have been
identified (see list below).
The secrecy of their corporate client list has caused problems where
Kissinger or a member of his staff were called to public service. In
1989, George Bush nominated Lawrence Eagleburger as his Deputy
Secretary of State. Congess required that Eagleburger disclose the
names of 16 clients, some of which were his through his Kissinger
Associates affiliation.. More recently, Kissinger himself was
appointed chairman of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks
Upon the United States by George W. Bush. Congressional Democrats
insisted that Kissinger disclose the names of clients. Kissinger and
President Bush claimed that such disclosures were not necessary, but
Kissinger ultimately stepped down, citing conflicts of interest.
In 1999, Mack McLarty, joined Kissinger to open Kissinger McLarty
Associates, the firm’s office on Eighteenth and K streets in
Washington, D.C.. McLarty was White House Chief of Staff under Bill
Clinton. Kissinger McLarty is a corporate member of the Council of the
Americas, the New York-based business organization established by
David Rockefeller in 1965.
Kissinger Associates is located in River House on Park Avenue at Fifty-
first Street, in a building also occupied by Peter Peterson’s
Blackstone Group. It was established in July, 1982 after loans had
been secured from Goldman Sachs and a consortium of three other banks.
These loans were paid out in two years; by 1987 annual revenues had
reached $5 million.”
Associated organizations and individuals
Kissinger Associates has strategic alliances with several firms,
* APCO Worldwide, formed October 12th, 2004 
* The Blackstone Group, an investment and advisory firm
* Hakluyt & Company, a corporate investigation firm
* Covington & Burling, the international law firm, since 2003.
Prominent staff have included:
* L. Paul Bremer, former managing director. Former Iraq Director
* Nelson Cunningham, managing partner at Kissinger McLarty
* Lawrence Eagleburger, former partner
* Richard W. Fisher – President, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
* Timothy F. Geithner – president, the Federal Reserve Bank of New
* J. Stapleton Roy, vice-chairman. Senior U.S. diplomat.
* Brent Scowcroft, former vice-chairman. Former United States
National Security Advisor.
Directors have included:
* Lord Carrington, from 1982. Secretary-General of NATO
* Pehr G. Gyllenhammar, from 1982. Chairman, Volvo
* William D. Rogers, from 1982. Undersecretary of State for
Economic Affairs under Nixon
* Eric Roll, from 1984. Chairman S.G. Warburg & Co
* William E. Simon, from 1984. Secretary of the Treasury under
* Saburo Okita, former Japanese Foreign Minister
* Étienne Davignon Former European Commissioner.
Known corporate clients
A selected list of the more notable companies (from over two dozen in
total) since 1982; his directorships where applicable; and some
countries where known advice/contacts were used:
* American Express – Director (Hungary, Japan)
* American International Group – Director, International Advisory
Committee (Argentina, China, South Korea)
* Atlantic Richfield
* Chase Manhattan Bank (now JPMorgan Chase) – Chairman,
International Advisory Committee
* Coca-Cola (Malaysia)
* Freeport-McMoRan – Director (Burma, Indonesia, Panama)
* Heinz (Ivory Coast, Turkey, Zimbabwe)
* Hollinger, Inc. – Director
1. ^ a b Gelb, Leslie H. (April 20th 1986). Kissinger Means
Business. New York Times.
2. ^ Corporate clients identified – see Walter Isaacson, Kissinger:
A Biography, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992, (updated 2005). (pp.
3. ^ Gerth, Jeff. “Disclosure Sought From Policy Group”, New York
Times, May 20th, 1989.
4. ^ a b Council of the Americas Member: Kissinger McLarty
Associates. Council of the Americas.
5. ^ Location and revenues – see Isaacson, Kissinger, op.cit. (p.
6. ^ Kissinger Associates, APCO Join in Strategic Alliance. APCO
Worldwide (October 12th, 2004).
7. ^ Strategic alliances. the Blackstone Group.
8. ^ Andrew Edgecliffe-Johnson (April 10th, 2001). Survey –
Corporate Security: The top players in intelligence industry.
9. ^ Sarasohn, Judy. “Making an Alliance Official”, Washington
Post, October 2nd, 2003.
10. ^ John Kerry & Hank Brown. BCCI and Kissinger Associates. The
BCCI Affair. United States Congress.
11. ^ a b c Oberdorfer, Don. “Kissinger’s New Team”, Washington
Post, August 24th, 1982.
12. ^ a b Gilpin, Kenneth N.. “Eagleburger Is Joining Kissinger
Associates”, New York Times, June 1st, 1984.
13. ^ Etienne Davignon delivers the plenary address on the third day
of EITC 97. European Union Publications Office.